Organelles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organelles Deck (16):
1

Mitochondrion

- Cellular respiration
- Turns glucose and oxygen into energy
- Animal and plant cells

2

Cell/Plasma Membrane

- Aids cell in transportation, attachment, recognition, fluidity and reception
- Made of phospholipids
- Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
- ALL cells

3

Nucleus

- Where DNA is stored and mRNA is transcribed
- Contains nucleolus
- Plant and animal cells

4

Cytoplasm

- Fluid in cell, also called cytosol
- Enzymes in cytoplasm convert molecules to other molecules
- Found in all cells

5

Ribosomes

- Found in cytoplasm or bound to endoplasmic reticulum
- Makes proteins
- Found in all cells

6

Lysosomes

- Breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids (macromolecules)
- Found in plant and animal cells

7

Endoplasmic reticulum

- Protein translation
- Rough ER, covered in ribosomes, makes and packages proteins
- Smooth ER, makes lipids and metabolises proteins
- Found in plant and animal cells

8

Golgi body

- Organises proteins into vesicles
- Sends out of cell
- Found in plant and animal cells

9

Peroxisome

- Over 50 enzymes, break down substances
- Generates lipids
- Found in plant and animal cells

10

Centrioles

- Two in each cell
- Guides chromosomes during mitosis/meiosis
- ONLY in animal cells

11

Vacuole

- Stores salts, minerals, waste of nutrients
- Provides structural integrity (plants)
- Only large in plant cells, but small ones found in animal cells

12

Chloroplast

- Double membrane
- Uses sunlight, converts water + carbon dioxide into sugar + oxygen (photosynthesis)
- Only in plant cells

13

Cell wall

- Made of a polysaccharide called cellulose
- Helps maintain shape
- Protects cell
- Only found in plant cells

14

Plasmid

- Circular DNA molecules
- Replicate within bacteria
- Different functions (E.G. Make pathogens, antibiotic resistance)
- Only found in bacteria

15

Flagella

- Whip like filaments
- Allows cell to move
- Found in bacteria and (rarely) animal cells

16

Nucleoid

- Contains genetic material
- Not membrane bound
- Only found in bacteria