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Flashcards in organic chemistry Deck (17)
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what are carbon chains

- carbons that are covalently bonded to other carbons
- typical organic compound involves carbon atoms covalently bonded to H,O,N or a halogen (group 17)


what is their electron configuration

- carbon can form 4 bonds, because of the 4 valence electrons
- 2,4
- 1S^22S^22P^2


what is a hydrocarbon

- simplest organic compound that contains only C and H atoms


what are the types of hydrocarbons

- aliphatics: continuous carbon chain (subcategories: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes)
- alicyclics: carbon forms a 'ring'
- aromatics: contain a benzene ring


explain the nomenclature of hydrocarbons

- number of carbons is indicated by a prefix
- 1: meth, 2: eth, 3: prop, 4: but, 5: pent, 6: hex, 7: hept, 8: oct, 9: non, 10: dec


what is an alkane

- continuous straight chain molecule
- general formula: CnH(2n+2)
- saturated
- low mp and bp: weak intermolecular forces
- solubility: insoluble in polar substances, soluble in non polar substances
- states: C1-4 gas, C5-19 liquid, C20 semi solid
- nomenclature: identify number of C in longest chain by prefix, add suffix 'ane'
- reactions: combustion (exothermic), substitution (catalyst needed, displaces H with another atom)
- note: excess halogen, then all H's are replaced by halogen atom


what are isomers

- compounds that have the same overall molecular formula, but different structural arrangement of atoms (similar chemical properties different physical properties)
- same formula different structures
- chain length can change due to chain isomers


what are functional groups

- branches that come off the parent chain, several types (alkyl groups and halogens)
- alkyl groups: methyl (CH3), ethyl (CH2CH3), propyl (CH2CH2CH3)
- halogens: chloro, fluoro, bromo, iodo


explain the nomenclature of functional groups

- identify longest chain, use appropriate prefix and suffix
- identify f.groups
- use numbering system to assign f.groups (lowest numbers)
- name f.groups alphabetically
- more than one of the same use prefix (2: Di, 3: Tri, 4: tetra)


what is an alkene

- contains a double bond between carbon atoms
- general formula: CnH2n
- unsaturated
- low mp and bp: weak intermolecular forces
- states: C2-4 gas, C5-15 liquid, C16-> semi solid
- nomenclature: similar to alkanes, but suffix is 'ene'
- reactions: combustion, addition (halogenation, hydro halogenation, hydration and hydrogenation)


how is halogenation useful

- distinguishes between alkane and alkene
- alkane: if no catalyst is present (NR), if catalyst is present (very slow)
- alkene: reaction occurs very quickly


explain the addition reactions of alkenes

- addition: double bond is broken, halogen atom is added (becomes saturated)
- halogenation: halogen is added onto two new bonds
- hydro halogenation: markovinkoff's rule, H always goes to C with most H's, halogen goes to C with least H's
- hydration: adding H2O, needs catalyst, nomenclature: identify parent chain length, use appropriate prefix, add 'ol'
- hydrogenation: adding H2, heat in H2 in presence of metal catalyst


what are cycloalkanes and haloalkanes

- same properties as alkanes
- haloalkanes: same properties as alkanes, has a halogen
- cycloalkane reactions: substitution (needs a catalyst, replaces H with halogen)


what are cycloalkenes

- same properties as alkenes
- double bond reacts the most, easily break to form single bond
- same reactions as alkenes


what are geometric and structural isomers

- geometric: double bond prevents rotation, nomenclature: cis (same side) trans (opposite sides), cis and trans used to indicate groups coming off parent chain (not H's)
- structural: chain isomers (alkanes), positional isomers (position of double bond, must be numbered)


what are aromatics

- contain benzene ring
- general formula: C6H6
- unsaturated (reactive)
- structure: long, each C has 1 H bond and 2 C bonds, 4th bond is delocalised (in centre in a ring)
- low mp and bp, density: (weak intermolecular forces)
- nomenclature: named similar to cycloalkanes
- reactions: combustion (burning), substitution (halogenation; one H is substituted off, needs catalyst)


what is organic chemistry

- the study of carbon and its compounds (excluding carbonates, bicarbonates and oxides)