Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (40):
How is crude oil split up into its different fractions?
Describe how the fractional distillation works
The oil is heated until most of it has turned into gas. The gases enter a fractioning column. Inside the column there's a temperature column, it's hot at the bottom and gets cooler as you go up.
Why are bottle caps used?
To stop the separated liquids from running back down the column and remixing
What are the fractions of crude oil and their uses?
Refinery gases - used for bottled gas
Petrol - fuel for cars
Naphtha - used to make plastics
Kerosene - jet engines
Diesel - fuel for trucks
Fuel oil - fuel for big ships
Bitumen - road surfacing
When is carbon monoxide produced?
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
It is poisonous. It combines with haemoglobin in blood cells, meaning the blood can carry less oxygen
When are Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released?
When fossil fuels are burnt
How is acid rain formed ?
When Sulfur dioxide mixes with clouds, forming new dilute Sulfuric acid
What is cracking?
When long-chain hydrocarbons are split into more useful short-chain molecules
Why is cracking needed?
Because there is a much higher demand for short-chain hydrocarbons than there is for long-chain ones.
What kind of reaction is cracking?
What are the conditions required for cracking?
Heat plus a catalyst
What is a hydrocarbon?
A molecule made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
What are the names of the first 5 alkanes?
What is a homologous series?
A group of chemicals that have similar chemical properties, can be represented by a general formula and have the same functional group
What is general formula of the alkanes?
What does saturated mean?
It means only contains carbon-carbon single bonds only
What is the equation for complete combustion?
Alkane + oxygen ————> carbon dioxide + water
What colour flame burns in complete combustion?
What is the equation for incomplete combustion?
Alkane + oxygen ——> carbon + carbon monoxide +carbon
Dioxide + water
What colour flame burns in incomplete combustion?
Smoky yellow flame
What is the difference between alkanes and alkenes?
Alkenes have a carbon-carbon double bond, so are unsaturated
What is the general formula of the alkenes?
Where is ethene produced from?
What does ethene react with to form ethanol?
Steam - H20
What conditions does ethanol require to be formed? (Temperature, Pressure)
What is the catalyst that is used?
Why is it currently a cheap process?
Ethene is fairly cheap and not much of it is wasted
Why will using ethene to make ethanol become expensive in the future?
Crude oil is a non renewable source that will start running out soon
What is the other way ethanol is formed ? (In drinks)
What is the raw material for fermentation and what is the catalyst?
Sugar - glucose and yeast
At what temperature does fermentation occur?
What is an advantage of fermentation?
The raw materials are renewable resources
What are the disadvantages of fermentation?
The ethanol you get isn't very concentrated so it needs to be distilled to increase its strength. It also needs to be purified
How can you turn ethanol into ethene?
Removing the water in a dehydration reaction
What is the catalyst when you turn ethanol into ethene?
Under what conditions are addition polymers made?
Under high pressure with a catalyst
What does condensation polymerisation usually involve?
Two different types of monomer
Why are polymers difficult to get rid of?
Because they are inert