Flashcards in Organic chemistry Deck (32):
What is an alkane?
A saturated hydrocarbon chain, containing only single bonds.
What is an alkene?
An unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, containing a double bond.
What is an alkyne?
An unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, containing a triple bond.
What does saturated mean?
Compound only has single carbon to carbon bonds.
What does unsaturated mean?
Compound that only has double or triple carbon to carbon bonds.
What is a homologous series?
Refers to molecules that have formulas differing by one or more CH2 units.
What is cracking?
Cracking is the process of breaking down complex organic molecules such as long hydrocarbon chains, into simpler molecules, by the breaking of carbon-to-carbopn bonds.
What is a functional group?
A specific group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.
What is the special functional group that alcohols contain?
What are the first three members of alkanes?
Methane, ethane, propane
What are the first three members of alkenes?
Ethene, propene, butene
What are the first three members of alkynes?
Ethyne, propyne, butyne
What are the three types of bonding?
Ionic bonding, metallic bonding, covalent bonding.
What is covalent bonding?
When two atoms share electrons. Two non-metal ions.
What is ionic bonding?
When one atom takes an electron away from another, and the resulting positive and negative ions are attracted. Two opposite charged ions.
What is metallic bonding?
The sharing of electrons between many atoms of a metal element. Only metal ions.
What is fractional distillation?
The process of taking a chemical mixture, and using heat to seperate out the various components of that mixture.
What is an isomer?
Compounds whose molecular formulas are the same, but have different bonding, shape or orientation.
What does the group tell us about an atom?
How many electrons in valence shell.
What are molecular formulas?
Tells us how many atoms of each element there are in a molecule.
What is a structural isomer?
Molecules which have the same molecular formula, but their atoms have different arrangements or bonds.
What is the octet rule?
Atoms like to have full outer shells of only eight electrons.
What is a lewis dot diagram?
A diagram that shows the valence electrons in an element.
What is the general molecular formula of alkanes?
C n H 2 n+2
What is the general molecular formula for alkenes?
C n H 2 n
What is the general molecular formula for alkynes?
C n H 2 n-2
What is an organic molecule?
The molecules that are found in living systems, built around chains of carbon atoms that are often quite long.
What are the first 10 prefixes used in nomenclature? (from 1-10)
Meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec
What are the three suffixes used in nomenclature? (with meanings)
-ane (single bond), -ene (double bond), -yne (triple bond)
What are the extra prefixes used to name additional branches in nomenclature ?
Di (2 branches) , tri (3), tetra (4)
What is used when there is only one carbon atom in an additional branch in nomeclature?