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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (46):
1

Crude oil

-formed over millions of years from the fossiles remains of plankton
-found in porous rocks in earths crust
-non renewable

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Most compounds in crude oil are

Hydrocarbons

3

The larger the hydrocarbon:

-more viscous
-higher boiling point
-less volatile
-less easily it ignites

4

Crude oil can be separated by

Fractional distillation

5

A fraction is

A set of hydrocarbon molecules

6

The bigger the fraction

The bigger the boiling point

7

Fractional distillation steps

1. Crude oil is heated to make a vapour
2. Vapour rises up the column
3.The column is hot at the bottom and cooler at the top
4.Hydrocarbons condense at different temperatures depending on the boiling point

8

Alkenes are

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

9

Alkene + hydrogen —>

Alkane

10

The complete combustion of an alkane results in

The production of CO2 gas

11

Alkane are defined as

Saturated hydrocarbon

12

Alkane are

-fairly un reactive
-burn well

13

What are used to make polymers

Alkenes

14

What’s a monomer

Small molecule with a double bond

15

How to represent polymerisation

Text book pg70

16

In addition polymerisation reactions

- The repeating units and the monomer units contain the same atoms
-the percentage atom economy is 100%

17

The properties of a polymer metal depend on

-What it is made from(what monomer)
- The conditions under which it was made(catalyst/ temperature)

18

What is low density polythene used for

Carrier bags

19

What is high-density Polythene useful

Plastic bottles

20

Condensation polymerisation

Monomer molecules joined together To form large polymer molecules and lose small molecules such as water

21

Meth

1

22

Eth

2

23

Prop

3

24

But

4

25

Pent

5

26

Hex

6

27

Most fuels arevcompounds of

Hydrogen and carbon

Many also contain sulfur

28

During the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

-both carbon and hydrogen are oxidised
-energy is released
-waste products are released into the atmosphere

29

Carbon monoxide is

Colourless
Odourless
Toxic gas

30

Cracking is where

Longer- chain hydrocarbon can be broken down into shorter more useful hydrocarbon

31

During thermal cracking

-hydrocarbons heated until thu vaporise
-valour passsed over a hat catalyst
-thermal decomposition reaction takes place

32

During steam cracking

Hydrocarbons are mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature 500

33

Alkenes have a

Double bond

34

Are alkenes or alkenes more reactive?

Alkenes because if the double carbon bond

35

Alkenes burn with a

Smokey flame

36

Alkene+ hydrogen —>

Alkane

37

Alkene+steam—>

Alcohol

38

Alkene turns bromine water

Colourless

39

Aqueous solution of ethanol can by produced by

Fermentation of sugar

40

During fermentation
Sugar—>

Ethanol+carbon dioxide

41

Temperature during fermentation

Why

25-50 Celsius

Too low yeast inactive
Too high yeast denatured

42

Alcoholic functional group

Hydroxyl -OH

43

Alcohols:

-Dissolve in water to form neutral solutions
-React with sodium to produce hydrogen
-Burn in air to produce carbon dioxide and water
-Are used as fuels and solvents

44

Alcoholic drinks contain

Ethanol

45

Carboxylic acid functional group

Carboxyl
COOH

46

Carboxylic acids:

-Dissolve in water to form acidic solutions
-React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
-React with alcohol to form esters
-Do not ionise fully in water so they are called weak acids