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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (62):
1

Crude oil

-formed over millions of years from the fossiles remains of plankton
-found in porous rocks in earths crust
-non renewable

2

Most compounds in crude oil are

Hydrocarbons

3

The larger the hydrocarbon:

-more viscous
-higher boiling point
-less volatile
-less easily it ignites

4

Crude oil can be separated by

Fractional distillation

5

A fraction is

A set of hydrocarbon molecules

6

The bigger the fraction

The bigger the boiling point

7

Fractional distillation steps

1. Crude oil is heated to make a vapour
2. Vapour rises up the column
3.The column is hot at the bottom and cooler at the top
4.Hydrocarbons condense at different temperatures depending on the boiling point

8

Alkenes are

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

9

Alkene + hydrogen —>

Alkane

10

The complete combustion of an alkane results in

The production of CO2 gas

11

Alkane are defined as

Saturated hydrocarbon

12

Alkane are

-fairly un reactive
-burn well

13

What are used to make polymers

Alkenes

14

What’s a monomer

Small molecule with a double bond

15

How to represent polymerisation

Text book pg70

16

In addition polymerisation reactions

- The repeating units and the monomer units contain the same atoms
-the percentage atom economy is 100%

17

The properties of a polymer metal depend on

-What it is made from(what monomer)
- The conditions under which it was made(catalyst/ temperature)

18

What is low density polythene used for

Carrier bags

19

What is high-density Polythene useful

Plastic bottles

20

Condensation polymerisation

Monomer molecules joined together To form large polymer molecules and lose small molecules such as water

21

Meth

1

22

Eth

2

23

Prop

3

24

But

4

25

Pent

5

26

Hex

6

27

Most fuels arevcompounds of

Hydrogen and carbon

Many also contain sulfur

28

During the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

-both carbon and hydrogen are oxidised
-energy is released
-waste products are released into the atmosphere

29

Carbon monoxide is

Colourless
Odourless
Toxic gas

30

Cracking is where

Longer- chain hydrocarbon can be broken down into shorter more useful hydrocarbon

31

During thermal cracking

-hydrocarbons heated until thu vaporise
-valour passsed over a hat catalyst
-thermal decomposition reaction takes place

32

During steam cracking

Hydrocarbons are mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature 500

33

Alkenes have a

Double bond

34

Are alkenes or alkenes more reactive?

Alkenes because if the double carbon bond

35

Alkenes burn with a

Smokey flame

36

Alkene+ hydrogen —>

Alkane

37

Alkene+steam—>

Alcohol

38

Alkene turns bromine water

Colourless

39

Aqueous solution of ethanol can by produced by

Fermentation of sugar

40

During fermentation
Sugar—>

Ethanol+carbon dioxide

41

Temperature during fermentation

Why

25-50 Celsius

Too low yeast inactive
Too high yeast denatured

42

Alcoholic functional group

Hydroxyl -OH

43

Alcohols:

-Dissolve in water to form neutral solutions
-React with sodium to produce hydrogen
-Burn in air to produce carbon dioxide and water
-Are used as fuels and solvents

44

Alcoholic drinks contain

Ethanol

45

Carboxylic acid functional group

Carboxyl
COOH

46

Carboxylic acids:

-Dissolve in water to form acidic solutions
-React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
-React with alcohol to form esters
-Do not ionise fully in water so they are called weak acids

47

If combustion is not complete

Then carbon monoxide, unburnt fuels and solid particles containing soot(carbon) may be released

48

Particulates can cause
(Solid particulates in the air)

Global dimming by reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earths surface and cause damage to people’s lung

49

Due to the high temperatures reached when fuels burn

Nitrogen in the air can react with oxygen to form nitrogen oxides

These gases can cause respiratory problems and can react with rain water to form acid rain

50

Alkane Turns bromine water

Orange brown solution

51

Ethene reacted with bromine forms

Dibromoethane

52

Ethanol can be produced by

Fermentation of sugar

53

Sugar—>

Ethanol + carbon dioxide

54

The main acid and vinegar

Ethanoic acid

55

Ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid by

chemical oxidising agents or bacteria from the air

56

Esters form from

Alcohol and carboxylic acids

57

Esters fictional group

COO

58

Ethanol + ethanoic acid

Ethyl ethanoate

Ester

59

Esters are

Volatile compounds

Low boiling point

Distinctive smells perfumes

60

Amino acids functional groups

Amine group NH2

Carboxyl group COOH

61

DNA

Two polymer chains constructed from four different nucleotides

Cytosine
Guanine
Adenine
Thymine

62

Starch and cellulose

Polymers of sugar
Made by plants
Starch sugar and cellulose are all carbohydrates