Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (33):
an atom in a molecule that allows it to exist as non-superimposable forms. it can also refer to the molecule itself
a carbon atom in a molecule that is joined to four different atoms or groups
isomers that are related as object and mirror image
when a substance rotates the plane of polarisation of plane-polarised light
has oscillations in all planes at right angles to the direction of travel
the apparatus used to measure the angle of rotation caused by a substance
a material that converts unpolarised light into plane-polarised light
a material that allows plane-polarised light to pass through it
an equimolar mixture of two enantiomers that has no optical activity
has two species reacting in the rate determining step
has one species reacting in the rate determining step
a type of mechanism in which a molecule containing two atoms or groups is added across a polar double bond (usually C=O). The attacking species in the first step is the nucleophile
compounds formed from other compounds, especially when the properties of the derivatives can be used to identify the original compound.
the breaking of a compound by water into two compounds.
the formation of a polymer, usually by reaction of two monomers, and in which a small molecule is formed.
description of the bonding in a compound - delocalised electrons forming pi bonding in a hydrocarbon ring
a catalyst that helps to introduce a halogen atom into a benzene ring
the extent to which a base can donate a lone pair of electrons to the hydrogen atom of a water molecule
occurs when two molecules join together, followed by the loss of a small molecules
the pH of an amino acid in a neutral aqueous solution
a molecule containing positive and negative charges but which has no overall charge
the bond formed by a condensation reaction between the carbonyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid.
in paper chromatography, this is the liquid or solid tat does not move
in paper chromatography, this is the liquid tat moves through the stationary phase and transports the components
High resolution mass spectrometry
a type of mass spectrometry that can produce Mr values with several decimal places, usually four or more.
Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
a technique used to find the structure of organic comounds. It depends on the ability of the nuclei to resonate in a magnetic field
the number that indicates its behaviour in a magnetic field relative to tetramethylsilane. It can be used to identify the chemical environment of the carbon atoms or of the hydrogen atoms (protons) attached to it.
chemical environments of carbon atoms in a molecule are related to whether the carbon atoms are identically or differently positioned within a molecule
peak (H(1) NMR spectrum)
shows the presence of hydrogen atoms in a specific chemical environment
the relative numbers of equivalent protons
hydrogen atoms in the same chemical environment
the appearance of a peak as a small number of small sub-peaks very close to each other