Organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

A level Chemistry > Organic Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (33):
1

chiral

an atom in a molecule that allows it to exist as non-superimposable forms. it can also refer to the molecule itself

2

asymmetric

a carbon atom in a molecule that is joined to four different atoms or groups

3

enantiomers

isomers that are related as object and mirror image

4

optical activity

when a substance rotates the plane of polarisation of plane-polarised light

5

unpolarised light

has oscillations in all planes at right angles to the direction of travel

6

polarimeter

the apparatus used to measure the angle of rotation caused by a substance

7

polariser

a material that converts unpolarised light into plane-polarised light

8

analyser

a material that allows plane-polarised light to pass through it

9

racemic mixture

an equimolar mixture of two enantiomers that has no optical activity

10

bimolecular mechanism

has two species reacting in the rate determining step

11

unimolecular mechanism

has one species reacting in the rate determining step

12

nucleophilic addition

a type of mechanism in which a molecule containing two atoms or groups is added across a polar double bond (usually C=O). The attacking species in the first step is the nucleophile

13

Derivatives

compounds formed from other compounds, especially when the properties of the derivatives can be used to identify the original compound.

14

hydrolysis

the breaking of a compound by water into two compounds.

15

condensation polymerisation

the formation of a polymer, usually by reaction of two monomers, and in which a small molecule is formed.

16

aromatic

description of the bonding in a compound - delocalised electrons forming pi bonding in a hydrocarbon ring

17

Halogen carrier

a catalyst that helps to introduce a halogen atom into a benzene ring

18

basicity

the extent to which a base can donate a lone pair of electrons to the hydrogen atom of a water molecule

19

addition elimination

occurs when two molecules join together, followed by the loss of a small molecules

20

isoelectric point

the pH of an amino acid in a neutral aqueous solution

21

zwitterion

a molecule containing positive and negative charges but which has no overall charge

22

pepide bond

the bond formed by a condensation reaction between the carbonyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid.

23

stationary phase

in paper chromatography, this is the liquid or solid tat does not move

24

mobile phase

in paper chromatography, this is the liquid tat moves through the stationary phase and transports the components

25

High resolution mass spectrometry

a type of mass spectrometry that can produce Mr values with several decimal places, usually four or more.

26

Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

a technique used to find the structure of organic comounds. It depends on the ability of the nuclei to resonate in a magnetic field

27

chemical shift

the number that indicates its behaviour in a magnetic field relative to tetramethylsilane. It can be used to identify the chemical environment of the carbon atoms or of the hydrogen atoms (protons) attached to it.

28

chemical environments

chemical environments of carbon atoms in a molecule are related to whether the carbon atoms are identically or differently positioned within a molecule

29

peak (H(1) NMR spectrum)

shows the presence of hydrogen atoms in a specific chemical environment

30

integration trace

the relative numbers of equivalent protons

31

Equivalent protons

hydrogen atoms in the same chemical environment

32

Splitting pattern

the appearance of a peak as a small number of small sub-peaks very close to each other

33

Multiplets

the different splitting patterns observed (singlets, doublets, triplets, quartets etc)