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GRADE 12 Physical Sciences > Organic chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic chemistry Deck (20)
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1

Organic Molecules

Molecules containing carbon atoms

2

Molecular formula

A chemical formula that indicates the type of atoms and the correct number of each in a molecule

3

Structural Formula

Shows which atoms are connected to which in a molecule. Atoms are represented by their chemical symbols and lines are used to represent all the bonds that hold the atoms together.

4

Condensed structural formula

Shows the way in which atoms are bonded together in a molecule, but does not show all the bonds

5

Hydrocarbon

Organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen and carbon only

6

homologous series

Series of organic compounds that can be described by the same general formula or in which one member differs from the next by a CH2 group.

7

Saturated compounds

Compounds in which there are no multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydrocarbons chains.

8

Unsaturated compounds

Compounds with one or more multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydrocarbon chains

9

Functional group

A bond or an atom or a group of atoms that determines the physical and chemical properties of a group of organic compounds.

10

Structural isomer

organic compounds with the same molecular formulae, but different structural formulae.

11

Chain isomer

Same molecular formula but different types of chains

12

Positional isomers

Same molecular formulae , but different position of the side chain, substituents or functional groups on the parent chain

13

Macromolecule

A molecule that consists of a large number of atoms

14

Polymer

A large molecule composed of smaller monomer units covalently bonded to each other in a repeating pattern

15

Monomer

Small organic molecules that can be covalently bonded to one another in a repeating pattern

16

Polymerisation

a chemical reaction in which monomer molecules join to form a polymer

17

Addition polymerisation

A reaction in which small molecules join to form very large molecules by adding on double bonds

18

Addition polymer

A polymer formed when monomers (usually containing a double bond) combine through an addition reaction

19

Condensation polymerisation

Molecules of two monomers with different functional groups undergo condensation reactions with the loss of small molecules, usually water

20

Condensation polymer

A polymer formed by two monomers with different functional groups that are linked together in a condensation reaction in which a small molecule, usually water, is lost