Organic Chemistry- Aldehydes and Ketones II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Aldehydes and Ketones II Deck (60):

What is an alpha-carbon?

It is the carbon adajacent to the carbonyl carbon


What are alpha-hydrogens?

The hydrogens connected to the alpha-carbon


Through induction, what happnes to the alpha-carbon and alpha-hydrogen?

Oxygen pulls some of the electron density out of these C-H bonds, weakening them


The weaker of the C-H bonds, makes what easy?

To deprotonate the alpha-carbon of an aldehyde or ketone


The acidity of alpha-hydrogens is augmented by what? And increase what?

Resonance stabilization of the conjugate base
This increasethe stability of this enolate intermediate


Through _____, the negative charge can be distributed to the more electronegative oxygen atom.

This resonance


What stabilizes the carbanion?

The electron-withdrawing oxygen atom


What is a carbanion?

A molecule with a negatively charged carbon atom.


In basic solutions, what will easily deprotonate?



The _____ of ketones is less _____ then those of aldehydes. Why?

Alpha-hydrogens of ketons tend to be slightly less acidic than those of aldehydes.
Due to the electron-donating properties of the additional alkyl group in a ketone


In reaction, _____ are slighty more reactive to nucleophiles then ____. WHy?

Aldehydes are slightly more reactive to nucleophiles than ketones.
This is due to steric hinderance in the ketone, which arises from the additional alkyl group ketones contain. When the nucleophile approaches the ketone or aldehyde in order to react, the additional alkyl groups on the ketone are in the way, more so than the single hydrgen of the aldehyde. This makes for a higher-energy, more crowded intermediate step. Remember, higher-energy intermediates mean that the reaction is less likely to proceed


Due to the acidity of the alpha-hydrogen, aldehydes and ketones exist in solution as what?

A mixture of two isomers: The familar keto form, and the enol form.


How does enol get its name?

The presence of a carbon-carbon double bond and an alcohol


What is the difference between the two isomers keto and enol?

They differ in the placement of a proton and the double bond


What are the two isomers keto and enol called?



Where does the equilibirum between the tautomers lie?

Far to the keto side, so there will be many more keto isomers in solution


What is enolization?

The process of interconverting form the keto to the enol tautomer


What is the general term for enolization?



What is a alpha-racemization?

Any aldehyde or ketone with a chiral alpha-carbon will rapidly become a racemic mixture as the keto and enol forms interconvert


What are important intermediates in many reaction of aldehyde and ketones?



The enolate carbanion results from what?

The deprotonation of the alpha-carbon by a strong base


What are common strong bases used to form enol?

The hydroxide ion
Lithium diisopropyl amide (LDA)
Potassium hydride (KH)


What is often used to form enolate carbanions? Why?

A 1,3-dicarbonyl which is particularly acidic because there are two carbonyls to delocalize negative charge


What is another type of keto-enol tautomerization reaction?

Michael addition


What occurs in the michael addition reaction?

The carbanion attacks an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound


What is the michael addition?

A molecule with a multiple bond between the alpha- and beta-carbon next to a carbonyl


Why does the michael addition reaction occur?

Due to the resonance stabilization of the intermediates


What can form if a ketone has two different alkyl groups?

Two forms of the enolate can form, with the carbon-carbon double bond between the carbonyl carbon and either the more or less substituted carbon


The equilibrium between the formation of the two forms of enolate is dependent on what?

Kinetic and thermodynamic control of the reaction


The kinetically controlled enolate formation is formed more ____ and less ____.

More Rapidly but less stable


What does the product of the kinetically controlled enolate look like?

The double bond to the less substituted alpha-carbon


How is the kinetically controlled enolate formed?

By the removal of the alpha-hydrogen from the less substiuted alpha-carbon because it offers less steric hinderance


The thermodynamically controlled produce is formed more _____ but is more ______.

More slowly but is more stable


What does the product of the thermodynamically controlled enolate look like?

The double bond being formed with the more substituted alpha-carbon


How is the thermodynamically controlled enolate formed?

By the removal of the alpha-hydrogen from the more substituted alpha-carbon


When are kinetically controlled enolate products favored?

In a reaction that is rapid, irreversible, at lower temperatures and with a strong, sterically hindered base.


When is the thermodynamically controlled enolate product favored?

With higher temperatures, slow, reversible reactions, which have smaller and weaker bases


What happens if a reversible reaction uses kinetically controlled enolate products?

The kinetic product can revert to the origianl reactant and react again to form the thermodynamic product


What are enamines?

Are tautomers of imines


What is an imine?

Is a compound that contains a C=N bond. This nitrogen in the imine may or may not be bonded to an alkyl group or other subtituent


What is tautomerization again?

Movement of a hydrogen and a double bond.


How can imines be converted to enamines?

Through tautomerization


What is another vital reaction in the MCAT?

The aldol condensation


What is Aldol Condensation?

This reaction follows the same general mechanism of nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl, however, an aldehyde or ketone acts both as an electrophile (in its keto forms) and a nucleophile (in its enolate form), and the end result is the formation of a carbon-carbon bond.


When acetaldehyde (ethonal) is treated with ______, an ____ is produced?

Catalytic amount of base
An enolte is produced


Why is the enolate more nucleophilic than the enol?

Because it is negatively charged


In the aldol condensation reaction, the nucleophlic enolate ion does what?

The enolate ion can react with the electrophilic carboyl group of another acetaldehyde molecule


What is key i a aldol condensation reaction?

Both species are in the same flask


What is the product when acetaldehyde (ethonal) goes through an aldol condensation reacction?

3-hydroxybutanol which is an example of an aldol


What is an aldol?

A molecule that contains both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups


When ketones are used are they still called aldol reactions?



With a strong base and high temperatures, what then occurs in the aldol condenstation reaction?

Dehydration occurs by an E1 or E2 mechanism: We kick of a water molecule and form a double bond, producing an alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl


Aldol condensations are most useful only if what are used? Why?

One type of aldehyde or ketone
If there are multiple aldehydes or ketones, we cannot easily control which will act as the nucleophile and which will act as the electrophile, and a mixture of products will result


Multiple products wont form, if what? Why?

If one of the molecules has no alpha-hydrogens because the alpha-carbons are quaternary


Why is aldol condensation called a condensation reaction?

Because Two molecules are jointed with the loss of a small molecule


Can an aldol condensation reaction also be called a dehydration reaction? Why?

Yes because the small molecule that is lost is water


What is the reverse of an aldol condensation reacction called?

Retro-aldo reaction


How do you push the reaction in a retro-aldol direction?

Aqueous base is added and heat is applied


What is the retro-aldol reaction useful for?

Breaking bonds between the alpha dn beta-carbons of a carbonyl


The retro-aldol reaction is facilitated if what?

The intermediate can be stabilized in the enolate form, just as in the forward reaction