Organic Chemistry Chp 11-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Chp 11-14 Deck (49)
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1

Saturated hydrocarbons:

Only have single bonds

2

Unsaturated hydrocarbons:

Contain one or more carbon-carbon multiple bonds.

3

Test for unsaturated hydrocarbons?

Mix with bromine water. If colour change orange- clear is observed, unsaturated hydrocarbon present.

4

Homologous Series:

A family of compounds with similar chemical properties, where each successive member differs by a alkyl group.

5

Alkanes:

All c-c bonds are single c-c bonds
Bond Angle of 109.5°
High boiling point, lower than corresponding alcohol

6

Functional Group:

A part of an organic molecule that effects its properties.

7

What can carbon covalently bond with?

Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and halogens.

8

What are the 3 classifications of hydrocarbons

Aliphatic
Aromatic
Alicyclic

9

Aliphatic:

Carbon atom chain, can be branched or unbranched with non-aromatic rings.

10

Acyclic:

Carbon atoms joined together in a branched or unbranched ring.

11

Aromatic:

Some or all of the carbon atoms in a benzene ring (C6H6)

12

What are the 3 different homologous series?

Alkenes
Alkanes
Alkynes

13

Alkenes:

One or more c=c double bonds
120° bond angle
Double bond formed by overlapping of p-orbitals

14

Alkynes:

One or more triple carbon to carbon bonds.

14

Aldehyde:

CHO - group
-al. - suffix

15

Ketone.

-C(CO)C- group
-one suffix

16

Carbonic acid

-COOH - group
-oic acid - suffix

17

Ester.

-COOC- group
-oate - suffix

18

Acyl Chloride-

-COCl - group
- oyl chloride - syffix

19

Amine

-NH2 group
-amine suffix

20

Nitrate

CN - group
-Nitrile suffix

21

Alcohol (group, suffix and prefix)

-OH- Group
-ol - suffix
Hydroxy- prefix

22

Structural isomers:

Same molecular formula, different structural formula.

23

Stereoisomers:

Same structural formula with a different arrangement of atoms.

24

Homolytic fission:

Each species takes an electron from the covalent bond, forming two radicals.

25

Heterolytic fission:

One of the bonded atoms takes both electrons from the covalent bond, forming ions.

26

Addition reactions:

2 reactants form one product.

27

Elimination reactions:

1 reactant into 2 products.

28

Substitution reactions:

Atom or group on molecule is replaced.

29

How does chain length effect melting point?

Increasing the chain length, increases the surface area, which increases surface contact and-so increases the strength of London forces, increasing the melting point.

30

How does branching effect melting point?

Branching interrupts contact between chains, reducing the strength of London forces, decreasing the melting point.

31

Why are alkanes unreactive?

Sigma bond strength.
No polar bonds.
Difficult to react with.

32

Nucleophiles

Donate electrons to form a chemical bond.

33

Electrophiles:

Accept electrons to form a chemical bond.

34

Diff. between E/Z isomerism and optical isomerism

E/Z occurs because of c=c double bonds
Optical isomerism occurs in a range of compounds.

35

Why does the C=C help cause stereoisomers?

It restricts rotation and-so the groups have fixed positions relative to eachother, meaning that variations are caused by the other carbon being a different orientation.

36

Cis-Trans isomerism:

Must have at least one of the same groups attached to both.

37

Alcohol physical properties:

Less volatile, higher water soluibility, higher melting points

38

Why do alcohols have higher boiling points than their corresponding alkanes?

Although alcohols have smaller London forces, they experience stronger hydrogen bonding because of their polar O-H bond.

39

Why does the difference in boiling point decrease between alcohols and alkanes as chain length increases?

The London forces of the alkane increase more than the effect of the hydrogen bonding.

40

What reactions can alkenes undergo:

Hydrogenation, halogenation, hydration, hydrogen halides

41

Reactions with Alkanes:

Combustion, radical substitution.

42

Reactions with alcohols:

Combustion, oxidisation, dehydration, substitution of a hydrogen halide.

43

Alkene hydration:

Alkene + steam with phosphoric acid catalyst (H3PO4)

44

Alkene hydrogenation

Alkene + hydrogen + nickel catalyst

45

Halogenation of alkenes

Alkene + halogen at room temp

46

Hydrogen halide addition and alkene

Liquid alkene + gas hydrogen halide
Or
Solid alkene + aq hydrogen halide
Or
Both gaseous
Produce 2 stereoisomers

47

Oxidisation of alcohols:

Alcohol + K2Cr2O7 acidified with H2SO4

48

Dehydration of alcohols:

Alcohol + conc. Acid (H2SO4 or H3PO4) ----> alkene + water