Organic Chemistry chp 4+5 : Functional Groups and Macromolecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry chp 4+5 : Functional Groups and Macromolecules Deck (28)
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1

-OH

Hydroxyl; alcohols, hydrophilic and polar

2

-C=O

Carbonyl: aldehydes (when =0 at end of chain), ketones (when =0 in middle), hydrophilic and polar

3

O
||
c
|
OH

Carboxyl: carboxylic acids, donate protons

4

H
|
N
|
H

Amino; amines, act as bases picking up protons from acids

5

isomers

molecules with same molecular formula but diff arrangements of atoms

6

-SH

sulfhydryl, thiols

7

O
||
O-P-O
|
O

Phosphate, organic phosphates

8

Hydrolysis

break down by adding water

9

Dehydration

brought together, producing H2O

10

Endergonic

requires energy input

11

Exergonic

releases energy

12

Redox

electron transfer reaction; OIL RIG - oxidizing ion loss, reduction ion gain

13

Carbohydrates

monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, pentoses

14

monosaccharides

simple ring sugar, glucose/fructose

15

disaccharides

to mono combined; sucrose/lactose (dehydration synthesis)

16

polysaccharides

polymers; starch (plants)/glycogen (animals): Cellulose(cell walls of glucose) Chitin(polymer of glucose, exoskeltons)

17

Lipids

insulation and long-term energy storage, fats +oils made of glycerol and fatty acids: waxes, phospholipids, steroids

18

Waxes

covering and protection

19

Phospholipids

structural component of cell membrane

20

Steroids

cholesterol and sex hormones, made of 4 fused rings

21

Saturated v unsaturated fats

no double bonds, solidify at room temp; opposite

22

Proteins

polymer of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds, aka polypeptides; can be denatured, 20 know amino acids

23

Primary Structure

sequence of amino acids forming polypeptide chain

24

Secondary Structure

fold into patter (alpha helix or pleated sheet)

25

Tertiary Structure

3d shape (globular of fibrous)

26

Quaternary Structure

2 or more polypeptide chains or subunits

27

Nucleic Acids

nucleotides, DNA RNA, ATP

28

Nucleotide

1. Sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
2. phosphate
3. Nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, uracil)