Flashcards in Organisation Deck (35):
What is tissue?
Tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. It can include more than one type of cell.
What are some examples of tissues in mammals?
-Muscular tissue (contracts)
-Glandular Tissue (makes and secretes chemicals)
-Epithelial Tissue (covers some part of body)
What is an organ?
A group of different tissues which work together to perform a certain function
What tissues are the organs in the stomach made of?
-Muscular Tissue moves stomach wall to churn food
-Glandular Tissue makes digestive juices to digest food
-Epithelial tissue covers outside and inside of stomach
What is an organ system?
A group of organs working together to perform a particular function
Name the human organ systems:
"Organ systems work together to make _____"
What needs to happen inside your body and cells for you to work?
Chemical reactions to get the right amount of substances
Why are enzymes useful?
They act as a biological catalyst. Catalysts also reduce the need for high temperatures
A substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction
What are enzymes made of?
Enzymes are all large proteins and all proteins are made up of chains of amino acids. These chains are folded into unique shapes, which enzymes need to do their jobs
What do chemical reactions usually involve?
Things being split apart or joined together
What is the name of the place where the substrate fits into the enzyme?
Why do enzymes usually only catalyse one specific reaction?
Because for an enzyme to work, the substrate has to fit into its active site. If the substrate doesn't match the enzymes active site, then the reaction won't be catalysed
What is the "induced fit" model of enzyme action?
Where the active site changes shape a little as the substrate binds to it to get a tighter fit.
How does an enzyme become denatured with temperature?
Increasing the temperatures, increases the rate of a reaction at first. However, if it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This changes the shape of the enzymes active site, so the substrate won't fit any more.
What condition, other than temperature effects the functionality of an enzyme?
Ph. If it is too high or low, the Ph interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together. This changes the shape of the active site rendering the enzyme denatures
What is rate a measure of?
How much something changes over time
What is the formula to calculate the rate of a reaction where an experiment measures how much something changes over time?
Rate of Reaction = Change(amount of product formed) ÷ time (cm3/s)
What is the formula to calculate the rate of a reaction when time is measured?
Rate = 1000 ÷ time (s-1)
What are the three types of muscle cells?
Cardiac muscle cells, Skeletal muscle cells, Smooth Muscle Cells
What are the main organs in the digestive system in chronological order?
What digestive process happens in the mouth?
chewing (mechanical) increases surface area of food to increase digestion by enzymes in the mouth (amylase)
What digestive process happens in the oesophagus?
peristalsis (contracts and relaxes to push food down)
What digestive process happens in the liver?
Bile is produced which neutralises stomach acid and is stored in gall bladder. Bile emulsifies lipids, increasing surface area for digestion by lipase
What digestive process happens in the duodenum?
pancreatic produced enzymes operate in the duodenum-amylase,protease,lipase
What digestive process happens in the ileum?
glucose,minerals and nutrients are absorbed
What digestive process happens in the in the colon?
water is absorbed as the bloodstream needs it
What digestive process happens in the rectum?
Faeces is stored there until it is ready to pass out of anus
What does amylase do?
Digests starch into simple sugars e.g. glucose
What does protease do?
Digests protein into amino acids
What does lipase do?
digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol
How does the substrate concentration affect the rate of a reaction?
Increased substrate concentration results in a faster rate of reaction up to certain point where this rate plateaus
Why does the rate of reaction/concentration of substrate graph plateau?
Because of limiting factors. This could be enzyme concentration or temperature for example.