Osteoarthritis and Reactive Arthritis Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS 2 - Musculoskeletal - Laz > Osteoarthritis and Reactive Arthritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteoarthritis and Reactive Arthritis Deck (28)
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1

Define reactive arthritis.

Sterile inflammation in joints following infection, especially urogenital and gastrointestinal infections

2

State a urogenital infection that can cause reactive arthritis.

Chlamydia trachomatis

3

Give some examples of gastrointestinal infections that are associated with reactive arthritis.

Shigella
Salmonella
Campylobacter

4

What subset of the population does reactive arthritis tend to occur in?

It occurs mainly in young adults with a genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger

5

How long after the infection does the reactive arthritis tend toappear?

1-4 weeks

6

Describe the features of the arthritis in reactive arthritis.

It is an asymmetrical arthritis that occurs in relatively few joints

7

Reactive arthritis can cause enthesopathy. Which entheses are likely to get affected and what symptoms will that cause?

Achilles tendonitis
Dactylitis
Metatarsalgia (painful feet because of inflammation of the palmar fascia)

8

What is a very common feature of seronegative spondyloarthropathies?

Sacro-iliitis

9

State some extra-articular features of reactive arthritis?

Sterile conjunctivitis
Sterile urethritis
Circinate balanitis
Keratoderma blennorhagicum

10

What is the triad of symptoms that can be used to describereactive arthritis?

Reiter’s syndrome – joint inflammation + urethritis + conjunctivitis

11

Where can you get spondylitis in rheumatoid arthritis?

At the atlanto-axial joint – there is synovium her

12

Describe the main differences between rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis.

Rheumatoid Arthritis vs Reactive Arthritis
Sex Ratio:
F>M - M>F
Arthritis:
Symmetrical, Polyarticular, Small&Large Joints - Asymmetrical, Oligoarticular, Large joints
Enthesopathy:
NO - YES
Spondylitis:
NO (Except atlanto-axial joint in cervical spine) - YES
Urethritis:
NO - YES
Skin involvement:
Subcutaneous nodules - K.blennorhagicum, Circinate balanitis
Rheumatoid factor:
YES - NO
HLA association:
HLA-DR4 - HLA-B27

13

What is the main danger in septic arthritis?

The bacteria produce metalloproteinases that can rapidly degrade thearticular cartilage

14

What are the main differences between septic arthritis and reactive arthritis?

Septic arthritis has a positive synovial fluid culture
It is treated with antibiotics and may even require joint lavage

15

Describe the treatment of reactive arthritis.

It usually resolves by itself
NSAIDs to control pain and symptomatic treatment of extra-articular manifestations

16

Define osteoarthritis.

Chronic slowly progressive disorder due to failure of articular cartilage that typically affects the hands (especially those involved in the pinch grip), spine and weight-bearing joints (hips and knees)

17

Which joints are most commonly affected in osteoarthritis?

DIP
PIP
First metacarpophalangeal joint
Spine
Knees
Hips
First metatarsophalangeal joint

18

What are the names given to the osteophytes found on the hand in osteoarthritis?

Bouchard’s Nodes – PIP
Heberden’s Nodes – DIP

19

What are some other associations of osteoarthritis?

Joint pain (worse with activity)
Joint crepitus
Joint instability
Joint enlargement
Joint stiffness after immobility
Limitation of motion

20

What are some radiographic features of osteoarthritis?

Joint space narrowing
Osteophytes
Subchondral bony sclerosis
Subchondral cysts

21

Describe the differences between the radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis also has joint space narrowing but it doesn’t have subchondral sclerosis or osteophytes
There is osteopenia and there are bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis but not in osteoarthritis

22

What can the osteoarthritis be caused by?

Abnormal cartilage
Abnormal stress

23

What is the most important component of articular cartilage?

Aggrecan

24

What is aggrecan made up of?

Chondroitin sulphate – glucuronic acid + N-acetyl galactosamine
Keratan sulphate – galactose + N-acetyl glucosamine

25

What is a proteoglycan?

Glycoproteins that contain one or more sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains

26

What is special about hyaluronic acid?

It is the only non-sulphated GAG

27

What are the disaccharides in hyaluronic acid?

Glucuronic acid
N-acetyl glucosamine

28

How is osteoarthritis managed?

Physiotherapy – strengthening the muscle around the joint improves joint stability
Analgesia – paracetamol, NSAIDs, intra-articular corticosteroid injections
Joint replacement
Weight loss where appropriate