Flashcards in Osteology Deck (39):
What are the symptoms of skull fractures?
Bleeding from wound, ears, nose and eyes
Draining of CSF
Loss of consciousness
What is a depressed fracture?
One at which it creates an indent
Fragment of bone compresses underlying structures
What is a linear calvarial fracture?
This is where the fracture radiates causing fracture lines away from the point of impact
What is a comminuted fracture?
Bone broken into several pieces
What is a countercoup fracture?
This is where no fracture occurs at point of impact but one occurs on opposite side of cranium
What is a simple fracture?
This is where no damage of skin occurs
What is a compound fracture?
Involves a break in the skin and splintering of bone along with brain injury
What is a basal skull fracture?
Presents with battle sign
What is the pterion?
H shaped, weakest part of the skull on lateral side
Thinnest part of calvaria
What can a fracture of pterion cause?
Extra dural haemorrhage due to rupture of middle menangial artery
By what route does an infection spread from scalp to skull bones and what infection does it cause?
Emissary veins and venous sinuses
What are the foramen of the calvaria?
What is malar flush an indication of?
How does a fracture of the dens occur?
Fall on head
May injure spinal cord -> quadriplegia
May injure brain stem -> death
How does hyper flexion of cervical region occur?
Head on collisions
Causes rupture of lower intervertebral discs resulting in compression of spinal nerve roots C6 and C7
Pain in neck, shoulder, arm and hand
How does hyper extension of the cervical region occur?
Causes tearing of anterior and posterior ligaments, fracture of cervical spinous process, disc rupture, neck muscle injury and blood vessel injury
How does a broken neck occur?
Compression of cervical spine against shoulder
C2, C6, C7 most common
C1 or C2 most fatal
What is a Jefferson fracture?
When you fall head first from a height or diving head first into a pool
Anterior and posterior arches of C1
What is a hangmans fracture?
Both pedicles or pars of C2
what are the 3 sutures on the top of the head?
what are the bones of the calvaria?
what are the bones of the facial skeleton?
inferior nasal concha
what bone is the superior and middle concha made from?
what bones make up the palate?
what is the nasal septum formed by?
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
what is the lateral nasal wall formed by?
what is the inferior aspect of the skull divided into?
3 cranial fossae
- anterior: orbital roof and frontal lobes of the brain
- middle: contains the temporal lobes of the brain
- posterior: contains the cerebellum, pons and medulla
what exits the foramina of cribiform plate?
olfactory nerve bundles
what exits the optical canal?
what exits the superior orbital fissure?
but only the opthalmic division of the trigeminal: to lacrimal, frontal, nasocilliary
what exits the foramen rotundum?
what exits the foramen ovale?
what exits the foramen spinosum?
middle meningial artery and nerve
what enters via the carotid canal?
internal carotid artery
what exits via the internal acoustic meatus?
what exits the jugular foramen?
what exits the hypoglossal canal?
what exits the foramen magnum?