Osteology Flashcards Preview

Head And Neck > Osteology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteology Deck (39):
0

What are the symptoms of skull fractures?

Bleeding from wound, ears, nose and eyes
Bruising
Draining of CSF
Swelling
Confusion
Convulsions
Loss of consciousness

1

What is a depressed fracture?

One at which it creates an indent
Fragment of bone compresses underlying structures

2

What is a linear calvarial fracture?

This is where the fracture radiates causing fracture lines away from the point of impact

3

What is a comminuted fracture?

Bone broken into several pieces

4

What is a countercoup fracture?

This is where no fracture occurs at point of impact but one occurs on opposite side of cranium

5

What is a simple fracture?

This is where no damage of skin occurs

6

What is a compound fracture?

Involves a break in the skin and splintering of bone along with brain injury

7

What is a basal skull fracture?

Presents with battle sign

8

What is the pterion?

H shaped, weakest part of the skull on lateral side
Temporal
Frontal
Parietal
Sphenoidal
Thinnest part of calvaria

9

What can a fracture of pterion cause?

Extra dural haemorrhage due to rupture of middle menangial artery

10

By what route does an infection spread from scalp to skull bones and what infection does it cause?

Emissary veins and venous sinuses
Osteomyelitis

11

What are the foramen of the calvaria?

Spinosum
Magnum
Ovale
Lacerum
Carotid canal
Jugular foramen

12

What is malar flush an indication of?

Mitral stenosis

13

How does a fracture of the dens occur?

Fall on head
May injure spinal cord -> quadriplegia
May injure brain stem -> death

14

How does hyper flexion of cervical region occur?

Head on collisions
Causes rupture of lower intervertebral discs resulting in compression of spinal nerve roots C6 and C7
Pain in neck, shoulder, arm and hand

15

How does hyper extension of the cervical region occur?

Whiplash injury
Causes tearing of anterior and posterior ligaments, fracture of cervical spinous process, disc rupture, neck muscle injury and blood vessel injury

16

How does a broken neck occur?

Compression of cervical spine against shoulder
C2, C6, C7 most common
C1 or C2 most fatal

17

What is a Jefferson fracture?

When you fall head first from a height or diving head first into a pool
Anterior and posterior arches of C1

18

What is a hangmans fracture?

Both pedicles or pars of C2

19

what are the 3 sutures on the top of the head?

lamboid
coronal
saggital

20

what are the bones of the calvaria?

frontal
parietal
sphenoid
ethmoid
temporal
occipital

21

what are the bones of the facial skeleton?

nasal
lacrimal
vomer
palatine
mandible
zygomatic
maxilla
inferior nasal concha

22

what bone is the superior and middle concha made from?

the ethmoid

23

what bones make up the palate?

maxilla
palatine bone

24

what is the nasal septum formed by?

perpendicular plate of ethmoid
vomer
palatine bones
septal cartilages

25

what is the lateral nasal wall formed by?

7 bones

26

what is the inferior aspect of the skull divided into?

3 cranial fossae
- anterior: orbital roof and frontal lobes of the brain
- middle: contains the temporal lobes of the brain
- posterior: contains the cerebellum, pons and medulla

27

what exits the foramina of cribiform plate?

olfactory nerve bundles

28

what exits the optical canal?

optic nerve

29

what exits the superior orbital fissure?

3,4,5,6
but only the opthalmic division of the trigeminal: to lacrimal, frontal, nasocilliary

30

what exits the foramen rotundum?

maxillary nerve
(Vii)

31

what exits the foramen ovale?

mandibular nerve
(Viii)

32

what exits the foramen spinosum?

middle meningial artery and nerve

33

what enters via the carotid canal?

internal carotid artery

34

what exits via the internal acoustic meatus?

facial nerve
vestibulotrochlear nerve

35

what exits the jugular foramen?

9,10,11

36

what exits the hypoglossal canal?

cn XII

37

what exits the foramen magnum?

medulla oblongata
meninges

38

sutures of the skull?

Sphenosquamous
Squanous
Sphenoparietal
Saggital
Parietomastoid
Occipitonastoid
Coronal
Lamboid