Osteology - Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Osteology - Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteology - Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen Deck (65):
1

Q image thumb

A image thumb
2

Q image thumb

A image thumb
3

Q image thumb

A image thumb
4


What runs through the transverse foramen?


Vertebral Artery, Vein, and Nerve

5


What do the transverse processes of C3-C6 exhibit?

 

  • Dorsal tubercle - caudodorsal branch
  • Ventral tubercle - cranioventral branch (known as ventral lamina in C6)

6


What is the ventral tubercle of the transverse process of C6 termed?


Ventral Lamina

7


Atlas:

Lateral vertebral foramen


Foramen that communicates with the vertebral foramen. It transmits the first cervical spinal nerve.

8


Atlas:

Wings


Well-developed transverse processes

9


Atlas:

Alar foramen

Foramen in the wing of the atlas in ungulates that transmits the ventral branch of the first cervical spinal nerve.

In carnivores, there is no alar foramen, instead there is an alar notch.

10


Atlas:

Atlantal fossa


The concavity in the ventral surface of the wing

11


Atlas:

Cranial articular fovea


Surface that articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull.

12


Atlas:

Caudal articular fovea


Surface that articulates with the cranial articular processes of the axis.

13


Atlas:

Ventral Arch --> Fovea Dentis + Ventral Tubercle

  • Fovea Dentis: articular surface for the dens of the axis on the dorsal surface of the ventral arch
  • Ventral Tubercle: prominence on which the longus colli muscles attach

14


Atlas:

Dorsal Arch --> dorsal tubercle


Dorsal tubercle:
 vestige of a spinous process on which the rectus capitis dorsalis minor muscles attach

15


Atlas:

Transverse Foramen in regards to ruminants and the horse


Not present in the atlas of ruminants, but it is present in the atlas of a horse.

16

Q image thumb

1. Intervetebral foramina

2. Ventral Lamina

3. Caudal costal fovea

17


Axis:

Dens


The cranial projection from the vertebral body; articulates with the fovea dentis of the atlas.

18


Axis:

Lateral Vertebral Foramen


Foramen, present in ungulates, that communicates with the vertebral foramen. It transmits the second cervical spinal nerve.

In carnivores, the foramen is replaced by a cranial vertebral notch.

19


C6 Ventral Lamina


The well-developed sagittal plate of the transverse process of C6. It serves as a radiographic landmark. It is poorly developed in the horse compared to other domestic mammals.

20


Caudal Costal Fovea


The depressions, one on each side, in the vertebral body of C7 for the heads of the first pair of ribs.

21


Does C7 include a transverse foramen?


No

22

Q image thumb

  1. Wing
  2. Alar foramen
  3. Lateral vertebral foramen
  4. Dorsal tubercle
  5. Transverse foramen
  6. Dorsal arch

23

Q image thumb

7. Cranial articular fovea

8. Atlantal fossa

9. Ventral tubercle

10. Ventral arch

24

Q image thumb

11. Vertebral Foramen

12. Fovea Dentis

13. Caudal articular fovea

25

Q image thumb

Atlas of the Ox

26

Q image thumb

  1. Lateral vertebral foramen
  2. Dens
  3. Cranial articular process
  4. Transverse process
  5. Caudal articular process

27


Thoracic Vertebrae are characterized by:


Short bodies

Short transverse processes

Long spinous processes

28


Thoracic Vertebrae:

Cranial costal fovea

Caudal costal fovea


 all thoracic vertebrae except for the most caudal, possess a pair of depressions on the cranial end of the vertebral body and a pair of depressions on the caudal end of the vertebral body for articulation with the heads of ribs

Last thoracic vertebra only has cranial costal foveae

29


Thoracic Vertebrae:

Costal fovea of the transverse process


Depressions on the trasverse processes of thoracic vertebra that articulate with the tubercle of the rib.

30


Thoracic vertebrae:

Anticlinal Vertebra


First vertebra in the caudal thoracic or lumbar region whose spinous process is perpendicular to the body. The spinous process of the rpeceding vertebrae incline caudally.

31

 

Mamillary processes


Small projections for the attachment of epaxial muscles. They are present on all vertebrae except for the cervical vertebrae and the first few thoracic vertebrae. Initially, mammillary processes are located on the transverse processes, but shift to the cranial articular processes in the caudal thoracic region.

They remain associated with the cranial articular processes throughout the lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae.

32


 

Q image thumb

1. Cranial Costal fovea

2. Caudal costal fovea

4. Costal fovea of transverse process

5. Mamillary process

6. Lateral vertebral foramen

7. Cranial articular process

 

33

Q image thumb

2. Caudal costal fovea

3. Transverse process

4. Costal fovea of the transverse process

5. Mamillary process

8. Caudal articular process

34


Lumbar vertebrae are characterized by:


Long transverse processes

35


What is special about the transverse processes of the horse in the last two or three lumbar vertebrae?


The transverse processes of the last two or three lumbar vertebrae articulate with each other, and the transverse processes of the last (6th) lumbar vertebra also articulate with the wings of the sacrum.

36

Q image thumb

1. Mamillary process

2. Transverse process

3. Cranial articular process

37

Q image thumb

1. Mammillary process

4. Caudal articular process

38


The thoracic skeleton is also known as _____, and consists of ______.


Thoracic skeleton = bony thorax

Consists of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum.

39


Thoracic cavity


Space enclosed by thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum.

40


Thoracic inlet = cranial thoracic aperture


Cranial opening, bounded by the manubrium of the strenum, first pair of ribs, and first thoracic vertebrae.

41


Thoracic outlet = caudal thoracic aperture


Caudal opening of the thoracic cavity

42


The strenum consists of ______.


Bony segements known as sternebrae, united by intervening cartilages or fused by synostoses.

43


How can you know the number of sternebrae in a given species?


The number of sternebrae in each species is one less than the number of sternal ribs.

Dog and cat have 8 strenabrae

Horse, ox, and sheep have 7 sternabrea.

Goat and pig have 6 sternabrea.

44


Manubrium


Cranial end of the strnum, or the first strenebra if the sternebrae are not fused.

45


Xiphoid process


Caudal end of the strenum, or the last strenebra if the strenebrae are not fused.

46

Xiphoid cartilage


Caudal continuation of the xiphoid process.

47

Q image thumb

1. Thoracic inlet

2. Thoracic outlet

3. Thoracic vertebrae

4. Sternebrae

5. Manubrium

6. Xiphoid process

7. Xiophoid cartilage

48


Os Costale


Dorsal bony part of the rib.

49


Costal cartilage


Ventral cartilage of the rib

50


Sternal Ribs


Ribs connected directly with the sternum

51


Asternal ribs


Ribs connected indirectly to the sternum

52


Floating Ribs


Ribs with free (unattahced) ventral ends

53

Ribs:

Head


The head of the os costale articulates with the cranial costal fovea of the thoracic vertebra of the same number and with the caudal costal fovea of the preceding vertebra.

54


Ribs:

Neck


The narrow segment between the head and the tubercle

55


Ribs:

Tubercle


Articulates with the costal fovea of the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra of the same number.

56


Ribs:

Costal sulcus


Groove on the medial surface near the caudal border in which the intercostal A., V., and N. are located

57


Ribs:

Intercostal space


The space between two consecutive ribs on the same side.

58


Ribs:

Costal arch


Formed by the costal cartilages of the last sternal rib and the asternal ribs.

59

Q image thumb

1. Os costale

2. Costal cartilage

3. Head

4. Neck

5. Tubercle

60


Vertebral Formula for Equus caballus

C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd20

61


Vertebral formula fo Bos taurus and Bos indicus


C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd20

62

Vertebral formula for Ovis aries and Capra hircus


C7 T13 L6-7 S4 Cd 16-18

63


Vertebral formula for Sus scrofa domestica


C7 T14 L6-7 S4 Cd 20

64


Vertebral formula of Canis familiaris and Felis catus


C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd20-24

65


Axial Skeleton consists of:


Skull + hyoid apparatus

Vertebral Column (vertebrae)

Ribs

Sternum