Other Important Protozoan Parasites (Franco Falcone) Flashcards
What kind of infection can be caused by Trichomonas vaginalis?
What kind of infection can be caused by Giardia lambia?
What kind of infection is caused by Entamoeba histolytica?
What is Trichomonas vaginalis classed as?
The most commonly treatable STI with a worldwide prevalence
Does Trichomonas vaginalis only affect women?
No men too - resides in the urethra and the prostate gland
How is Trichomonas vaginalis transmitted?
Unprotected sexual intercourse
Describe the life cycle of Trichomonas vaginalis
Trophozoites reside in vaginal or prostatic secretions and or urine
The protozoa multiplies by longitudinal binary fission
Trophozoite is found in the vagina or urethra orifice
What is the structure and function of the Trichomonas vaginalis?
4 anterior flagella are free, one is attached to the membrane on opposite site of the protozoa.
Cape = costa
Peto at tip of the flagella that are free
Axosyte like the spine
What are the symptoms associated with Trichomonas vaginalis?
Irritation, strawberry cervix, malodorous vaginal discharge, itching, pH increases to 5 or higher (normally 4)
What are the complications in Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women?
Can result in premature or low birth weight babies
What is the difference in symptoms between men and women?
Men are normally asymptomatic ( but can still transmit the parasite)
Women are symptomatic ( or are within 6 months of infection)
What is a consequence of men being infected with Trichomonas vaginalis?
Can reduce sperm counts and motility (fertility) cause prostatitis or urethritis
Increases risk of HIV and HSV2 acquisition and transmission (Herpes)
How can Trichomonas vaginalis be diagnosed?
Wet mount; (microscopy) in both men and women, but not very sensitive
Culture more sensitive - the gold standard, but more expensive and time consuming (2-7 days of growth)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - expensive
Point-of-care tests (dipsticks) available, results in less than 1 hour
What is the treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis?
Either 2g dose or 400mg od for 7 days
What is tried if Metronidazole is not effective for Trichomonas vaginalis?
Who else should be treated when a patient has Trichomonas vaginalis?
How can Trichomonas vaginalis be prevented?
Treatment of sexual partners by partner referral or patient delivered partner treatment