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Flashcards in Other, OSA, Cancer Deck (16)
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1

What is obstructive sleep apnoea?

Intermittent closure/collapse of pharyngeal airway during sleep - causing apnoeic episodes (cessation of air flow >10s during sleep) - terminated by partial arousal

2

Typical OSA patient

Obese, middle aged man
Presents with snoring or daytime somnolence

3

Features of OSA

Loud snoring
Daytime somnolence
Poor sleep quality
Morning headache
Decreased libido
Cognitive performance decrease

4

Complications of OSA

Pulmonary hypertension, type 2 respiratory failure and hypertension

5

DX of OSA

Polysomnography - O2 sat at nose and mouth, ECG, EMG chest, abdominal wall movements
15 of more episodes of apnoea or hypopnoea during 1 hour of sleep indicates OSA

6

Management of OSA

Lose weight
Avoid smoking and alcohol
CPAP via nasal mask during sleep
Surgery to relieve obstruction is occasionally needed

7

Presentation of cor pulmonale

Dyspnoea fatigue and syncope
Cynaosis, tachycardia, raised JVP, ECG signs
Hepatomegaly and oedema

8

Management of cor pulmonale

Treat cause
Treat resp failure
Treat cardiac failure

9

What is pleural effusion - two types

Fluid in pleural space
Transudates 35g/l of protein

10

Causes of a transudative pleural effusion

Increased venous pressure
- Cardiac failure
- Fluid overload
- Constrictive pericariditis

Hypoproteinaemia
- Cirrhosis
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Malabsorption

Hypothyroidism

11

Causes of an exudative pleural effusion

Increased leakiness due to infection, inflammation or malignancy

Eg. pneumonia, TB, pulmonary infarction, RA

12

Symptoms of pleural effusion

Dyspnoea
Pleuritic chest pain

13

Signs of pleural effusion

Decreased expansion
Stony dull percussion
Diminished breath sounds
Vocal fremitus decreased

14

CXR in pleural effusion

Small effusions blunt costophrenic angle
Larger ones seen as water-dense shadows, concave upper borders

15

Other diagnostic measures in Pleural effusion

USS
Diagnostic aspiration

16

Management of pleural effusion

Drain - remove slowly
Pleurodesis (tetracycline, talc or bleomycin) if recurrent