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Flashcards in Other resp. conditions Deck (10):

What is protracted bacterial bronchitis?

- Persistent infection of conducting airways


Aetiology of protracted bacterial bronchitis

• H. influenzae
• Streptococcus pneumoniae
• Moraxella catarrhalis


Pathophys of protracted bacterial bronchitis

- Predisposing viral infection -> Impaired mucociliary clearance -> Infection of bronchi with bacteria -> Biofilm formation
- A biofilm is a matrix secreted by some bacteria that is thought to enhance attachment, facilitate access to nutrients and decrease antibiotic penetration, thus providing substantial protection against antibiotics and making the bacteria difficult to eradicate


What is wrong in primary ciliary dyskinesia?

- Ultrastructural and functional defects of cilia
- Abnormal ciliary motion -> impaired mucociliary clearance


PCD - associated with?

Dextrocardia in 50% (Kartagener’s syndrome)


Consequences of PCD

- Sinusitis
- Rhinitis
- Chronic suppurative lung disease
- Otitis media
- Male infertility


What is laryngomalacia?

- Congenital softening of laryngeal cartilage
- Inward collapse of aryepiglottic folds
- Floppy laryngeal tissues fall over airway -> partial block


Clinical features of laryngomalacia

- Omega shaped epiglottis
- Stridor
• Most common cause of noisy breathing in infancy
• Worse on back/crying
- High pitched sound
- Difficulty feeding/poor weight gain/choking while feeding
- Apnoea/cyanosis
- Aspiration/reflux


Natural history of laryngomalacia

- Worsen for few months then resolve generally by 2nd year of life


What is CSLD (chronic suppurative lung disease)?

Recurrent (>3 episodes) wet or productive cough, each lasting for >4-weeks, with or without other
features, e.g. exertional dyspnoea,
• symptoms of airway hyper-responsiveness,
• recurrent chest infections,
• growth failure,
• clubbing,
• hyperinflation or chest wall deformity

- but lack radiographic diagnosis of bronchiectasis