Outer & Middle Ear Flashcards Preview

Intro to Audiology > Outer & Middle Ear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Outer & Middle Ear Deck (26):
1

Condyle

-Protrusion of the mandible
-Below osseocartilaginous junction
-TMJ if mandible sits incorrectly

2

Microtia

deformity of the outer ear

Down Syndrome
Basal Cell Carcinoma

3

Anotia

pinna is absent

Down Syndrome
Basal Cell Carcinoma

4

Atresia

Lack of ear canal

Treacher collins
CHARGE syndrome
Some because of trauma or burn

5

Stenosis

Narrowing of ear canal
No hearing loss, just excessive cerumen

6

External Otitis

external ear infection

7

Exostoses

bony growth in ear canal

8

Myringitis

inflammation of TM

9

Otomycosis

fungal external ear infection

10

Myringoplasty

surgical repair of TM

11

Tympanosclerosis

thickening of TM
Don’t respond well to surgical treatment

12

Negative Pressure

Middle Ear Disorder
Treated By:
Politzerization – one nostril, MD blows opposite
Valsalva – most common
Toynbee maneuver – close jaw & swallow

13

Otitis Media

Barotrauma
Middle Ear Infection

Types:
Purulent (pus-producing) = bacteria
Suppurative = painful pus, increased body temp
Mastoiditis = pus cannot escape, invade mastoid space
Chronic vs acute
hemotympanum

Antibiotic treatment
Dormant OM
Meniscus – visible through the TM
PE Tubes
Tympanosclerosis
Mucous OM = glue

14

Cholesteatoma





Subluxation – partial dislocation of ossicular chain

History of ear infections
Continual regrowth

15

Mastoidectomy

Mastoiditis- bone must be scraped clean
Creates large concha bowl in pinna


16

Tympanoplasty

ossicular bones
Myringoplasty- simplest form
Subluxation – partial dislocation of ossicular chain

17

Facial Palsy

Bell's Palsy

Facial Weakness
Dry Eye
Altered Taste
Hyperacusis

18

Patulous Eustachian Tube (PET)

Eustachian tube is chronically open
Autophony – head in a barrel feeling
Voice is perceived as loud
Chewing and breathing sounds loud
“occlusion effect”
Pregnant / birth control
Working out / body weight changes

19

Otosclerosis

Prominent in white women over 30, during pregnancy or menopause
Bony growth or hardening of stapes footplate
Becomes fixed in the oval window
Conductive hearing loss
Tinnitus
Hear better in background noise
Most common fix: stapedectomy or HAs

20

SISN HL- Sudden Idiopathic Sensorineural HL

30 dB loss at least 3 octaves
Autoimmune, Viral, or other infection
Blood supply
Steroid treatment

21

Menniere's Disease

Unilateral- fluctuating HL
Many “causes”- mostly undetermined
Biggest impact failure to understand speech
Typically unilateral; tinnitis at lower pitch; fluctuates in “attacks”

Four Questions:
Roaring tinnitus,
aural fullness
dizziness
trouble with speech recognition

Cochlear hydrops: over secretion and under absorption of endolymph
When fluid builds in cochlear duct, pressure & tinnitus increase
Causes swelling; cause of full feeling; typically no dizziness; otherwise similar to Meniere’s

Hearing aids restore loudness for safety in the environment; understanding is not helped by aids

22

superior olivary complex (SOC) and inferior colliculus

Two important crossovers for auditory impulse/nerve

23

8th Nerve HL - Acoustic neuritis

Inflammation of the 8th nerve

24

8th Nerve HL - Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Disease where immune system eats away the protective covering of the nerve

25

8th Nerve HL - Auditory neuropathy

Normal outer hair cell function in the cochlea, but 8th nerve response fails to synchronize reliably
Some days they can hear, some days they cannot
Information does not smoothly travel from the ear to the brain

26

Central Auditory Processing Disorder

Inability of the central auditory system to organize concurrent auditory input into the correct patterns

“Sound gets to the brain, but the brain doesn’t know what to do with it”

MUST have normal hearing sensitivity

Extremely long test battery

Trouble distinguishing APD vs ADD/ADHD
Play dog test; 11 mins long; presses clicker at every specified word
Analyze correct, missed, erroneous responses to determine btwn APD and ADHD
Can also determine if ADHD meds are needed or are working
504/IEP