Overdose/Withdrawal Flashcards Preview

Psych > Overdose/Withdrawal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overdose/Withdrawal Deck (25):
1

Depressants: intox

Nonspecific: mood elevation, decreased anxiety, sedation, behavioral disinhibition, respiratory depression

2

Depressants: withdrawal

Nonspecific: anxiety, tremor, seizures, insomnia

3

Alcohol: intox

Emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia coma, blackouts. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) - sensitive indicator of alcohol use.
Lab AST value 2x ALT value

4

Alcohol: withdrawal

Mild alcohol withdrawal: symptoms similar to other depressants.
Severe alcohol withdrawal: autonomic hyperactivity and DTs (5-15% mortality rate). Tx for DTs: benzos

5

Opioids: intox

Euphoria, respiratory and CNS depression, decreased gag reflex, pupillary constriction (pinpoint pupils), seizures (overdose).
Tx: naloxone, naltrexone

6

Opioids: withdrawal

Sweating, dilated pupils, piloerection ("cold turkey"), fever, rhinorrhea, yawning, nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea ("flu-like" symptoms).
Tx: long-term support, methadone, buprenorphine

7

Barbiturates: intox

Low safety margin, marked respiratory depression.
Tx: symptom management (assist respiration, increase BP)

8

Barbiturates: withdrawal

Delirium, life-threatening cardiovascular collapse

9

Benzodiazepines: intox

Greater safety margin. Ataxia, minor respiratory depression.
Tx: supportive care; consider flumazenil (competitive benzodiazepine antagonist)

10

Benzodiazepines: withdrawal

Sleep disturbance, depression, rebound anxiety, seizure (can be triggered by reversal with flumazenil)

11

Stimulants: intox

Nonspecific: mood elevation, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia, anxiety.

12

Stimulants: withdrawal

Nonspecific: post-use "crash," including depression, lethargy, weight gain, HA.

13

Amphetamines: intox

Euphoria, grandiosity, pupillary dilation, prolonged wakefulness and attention, hypertension, tachycardia, anorexia, paranoia, fever.
Severe: cardiac arrest, seizure

14

Amphetamines: withdrawal

Anhedonia, increased appetite, hypersomnolence, existential crisis

15

Cocaine: intox

Impaired judgment, pupillary dilation, hallucinations (including tactile), paranoid ideations, angina, sudden cardiac death.
Tx: benzos

16

Cocaine: withdrawal

Hypersomnolence, malaise, severe psychological craving, depression/suicidality

17

Caffeine: intox

Restlessness, increased diuresis, muscle twitching

18

Caffeine: withdrawal

Lack of concentration, HA

19

Nicotine: intox

Restlessness

20

Nicotine: withdrawal

Irritability, anxiety, craving.
Tx: nicotine patch, gum, or lozenges; bupropion/varenicline

21

PCP: intox

Belligerence, impulsiveness, fever, psychomotor agitation, analgesia, vertical and horizontal nystagmus, tachycardia, homicadlity, psychosis, delirium, seizures.
Tx: benzos, rapid-acting antipsychotic

22

PCP: withdrawal

Depression, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, anergia, disturbances of thought and sleep

23

LSD: intox

Perceptual distortion (visual, auditory), depersonalization, anxiety, paranoia, psychosis, possible flashbacks

24

Marijuana: intox

Euphoria, anxiety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, increased appetite, dry mouth, conjunctival injection, hallucinations.
Prescription form: dronabinol: used as antiemetic and appetite stimulant (AIDS pts)

25

Marijuana: withdrawal

Irritability, depression, insomnia, nausea, anorexia. Most symptoms peak in 48 hours and last for 5-7 days. Generally detectable in urine for 1 month.