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62AD earthquake
earth tremors several days
cracks in walls


day 1

clouds umbrella pine shapes
cloud seen from misenum
clouds - sometimes white, blotched dirty
message from rectina - goes to investigate with warships
pliny stays and sturdies
EP - danger zone, fallout debris - blocks route
Pomponianus at Stabiae
Wind direction = can’t leave Stabiae
flames and fire from Vesuvius
EP batched dine and went to bed


day 2

Stabiae - pumice and ash fill courtyards - EP nearly trapped indoors, buildings shake
tied pillow to heads - falling pumice and stones
P + mum scolded for staying
leave at dawn - crowds of shrieking people
darkness at Stabiae even though morning
EP goes to shore - options to leave by sea - wild and dangerous
cloud split = bursts of flame, fire like lightning
clouds sink to earth
smell of sulfur
EP lies down drinks cold water, tried to stand, collapses and dies choking
cloud collapses - pyroclastic surge
clouds got to Misenum - people shrieked, wailed, shouted, finding others, mourned fate, prayed for death, asked gods for help, believed end of universe


day 3

more earthquakes overnight
EP body recovered
5000 died


pompeii burial

slow, shallow, loose
fallout cloud, several hours
pumice and ash
pyroclastic surge
3-5m deep


herculaneum burial

fast, deep, solid
not under eruption cloud
pyroclastic flow - boiling rain mixed with lava
very quick - few mins
18-25m - solidified when cooled


pompeii escape and death

fallout cloud - harder to escape
rocks = deadly, roof collapses
no escape by sea
many did leave, 2000/10,000
hot gases and ash = suffocation - cemented lungs
sheltered inside = trapped
looted - bodies found with money, man near fullery
gases kill people - toxic
some planned to leave - bodies with possessions
some expected to return - guard dog chained up
knew they were dying - covering face with mouth


herculaneum escape and death

escape easy option for a while
had time to leave, less obvious danger, so didn’t leave
remains of lunch meal on table
hoped for rescue by sea - skeletons in boat sheds and bones on beech
no time to escape in end
carbonised human bones on beech
killed by thermal shock if inside - 300
death - instant



pompeii dug, then forgotten
people robbed from sites
theatres and herculaneum


1860 - fiorelli

cleared streets, town plan, divided into numbered sections (regions, insulae, doorways)
position and finds recorded in place
- uncover cavity, imprint left by person or object sealed by ash
- pump plaster to fill in space - plaster cast which sets
- excavate around it to reveal cast


what were casts made of

tree roots


what did some casts show

people covering faces
dogs buried alive


excavation of herculaneum

slow and hard
solidified pyroclastic flow
modern town Erculano built on top of it
7 insulae fully excavated


forum general layout

road stops at the edge - blocks to stop any wheeled vehicles
no traffic
busy place
all building exteriors - bright, vivid colours



roof all way - unusual but shows importance
modern day law courts, business centre
trade deals but not actual trade, just deals initialised
speeches for court trials, free



town councillors for life



maintained for public buildings and order



main officials for administrator of justice
1 year post, 2 elected by people

graffiti shows elections were popular, encouraged people to vote for certain people


speaker’s platform

public announcements
candidates at election times

AE - raises platform in front of T of Jupiter
west side of forum



10 doorways
function - voting in
doorway let’s lots of people in and out
cast lost by dropping vote in urn with name of candidate



shaded walkways on both sides and along bottom of forum discuss, gossip
notices painted on them, case results, election results, notices for games
social hub
stalls in colonnades for foods, clothes



drainage hole in corner
busy area


building of eumachia

AE. - statue at end of building, rich fuller
AE. - expensive rare marble, massive doorway, unusual, shows importance and wealth of fullers
place - where fullers can gather, traded good for trade, store merchandise, travelling fullers - lodging



colonnades courtyard
fresco of fish
booths along wall
stalls under colonnades
food market
covered circular market space - fish scales, fishmonger stalls
coins discovered - money changers booth


weights and measuring table

table with holes
standard volume measures of goods - fair trade


shops and warehouses

bigger booths outside of macellum walls
warehouse building


pompeii - personal glory

marble decoration building of eumachia


pompeii - impressive and displays wealthy town

double height white stone pillared colonnade
macellum decorated with frescos and repainted after earthquake 62AD
large basilica - covered roof


pompeii - well organised, clean and tidy

central area paved white stone
roads end and bollards used to keep traffic out
all food stalls were grouped in macellum


pompeii - buildings in deliberate places

political buildings grouped together
forum laid out with T of Jupiter (head god) at top


pompeii - lack of effort to carry out repairs after 62AD earthquake

damaged forum buildings, not fully repaired
relief from house in pompeii showing earthquake effect in T of Jupiter


baths - to stay fit

Stabian baths - swimming pool and bowling alley
All baths - palaestra
exercised naked


baths - to get clean

oil flasks, strigil
applied oil to loosen dirt
scaled dirt off with strigil


baths - to have sauna

piles of tiles to support raised floor - rooms heated by hypocaust system, hot air circulates under floors and up walls, hot rooms warmed first then warm rooms
boiler heated by same fire
bonze brazier - warmed rooms without hypocaust - extra


3 different rooms in baths

frigidarium - optional plunge pool first
tepidarium - acclimatise, optional ointment rub
caldarium - to sweat, can repeat


baths as sociable and popular

Stabian baths and Forum baths - 2 sets of room, one for each gender
latrines - sir down in long rows and discuss
Pompeii had 3 baths
Herc. had 2 (so far)
central bath was still being built - demand and growing popularity
different layouts - experimenting
1000+ lamps found - open in evenings too


why might baths not be popular

Stabian baths badly damaged in 62AD
not enough money and effort to restore?


baths as luxurious and important

richly decorated - colourful and patterned ceilings
beautiful mosaic floors
relaxing and interesting
sophisticated and thoughtful


Aqua Augusta

damaged in 62AD
massive water system, supplying towns in area, part of higher network
wasn’t functioning 72AD, relying on own water collection


Castellum Divisiorum

water dividing building
high point in town
3 channels - private houses, public fountains, public baths
damaged in 62AD earthquake, damaged by 79AD
careful planning
fairness - fountains prioritised in times of shortages, middle one
cut off from private homes in shortage


water distribution

both - lead pipes under sidewalks, run a,omg streets, careful planning

pompeii - water towers with pipes running up and back down
tanks at top - reduced water pressure to help manage

both - fountains - flows out into basins onto streets, keeps water fresh


serrage in pompeii

no underground system
latrines have pits underneath - don’t flow onto streets
streets are open sewers for rubbish and overflow water


serrage herculaneum

massive system of tunnels underground - cistern
drainage holes from latrines link to sewer
holes in wide of roads
more advances system than P - careful planning and makes Herc. more pleasant place to live


sets in pompeii

lava blocks form surface of roads
large stepping stones set into roads allow carts and animals and wheels to pass either side
streets range in size - not all are busy
careful planning and advances town organisation
keeps people on foot out of dirt


streets in herc.

same as pompeii but no stepping stones
quieter town - less busy, less trade, less traffic


large theatre

built into natural hollow
horseshoe shape - 5000, 40cm per person
3 seating areas: ima cavea, media cavea, summa cavea
summa damaged in 62AD
wall sockets near top of wall
busy squashed together
ima - musicians and council
wooden posts - shade for audience
two entrance passageways
rich citizens paid for parts to be build - Holconii brothers
show odd wealth and gain support



had a roof - used in all weathers all year round
2 entrance passageways
duumvirs paid for it


theatre at herc.

not fully excavated
smaller than P one


entertainment in large theatre

Mosaic of street musicians, instruments
graffiti advertise sprinklings and perfumed water
pleasant - disguise smells


entertainment in odeon

concerts and recitals
singing and poetry
smaller venue
not as popular



working in touring troops
mosaic of actors preparing backstage
fan graffiti - Paris, pearl of the stage, the fans of paris
used in decoration - interesting
fans of theatre and had favourites


Yes - popular entertainment

size of large theatre
herc. has own theatre
rich paid for buildings
frescos in private homes
fan graffiti
a lot of people in town of 10,000


No - not popular entertainment

repairs to summa cavea nor carried out by 79AD
odeon small seating
lack of interest and demand
music and poetry not popular


relief of tomb of UMBRICIUS SCAURUS

pairs or gladiators fighting
secutor, retiarius
different types of gladiators


Armour finds

15 different helmets
variety of armour pieces


advertising for games

graffiti notices - written on walls in streets
date of games, whose gladiators were fighting, how many, if there will be sprinklings, name of man fighting
free of charge
happen almost every month
shade and cool - pleasant
very popular - open to all


events at games

parade of gladiators
sponsor dedicated games to Manes, god of dead (president’s box)
mock fights warm crowd up
paired conflicts
musicians play during fights
crowd cheers - audience involved
fight until 1 severely wounded
try to sounds - referee restrains victor
wounded man holds up a finger for mercy
sponsor and crowd decide fate - reprieve or dragged through gate of death


results graffiti

gives type of gladiator, name, number of fights, outcome of fight
show that death = uncommon - most reprieved
gladiators - popular + valuable


heating water

tanks for water (boilers) heated by same fire as hypocaust
tank on top = caldarium
tant next to it = tepidarium
water from tanks reached baths through pipes


bronze half cylinder in stabian baths

full of hot water, heated by hottest air leaving furnace, lower than the bath it is joined to, hot water rises out of cylinder into bath
cold water sinks back not cylinder and is reheated