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Flashcards in P+H Deck (60):
1

before

62AD earthquake
earth tremors several days
cracks in walls

2

day 1

clouds umbrella pine shapes
cloud seen from misenum
clouds - sometimes white, blotched dirty
message from rectina - goes to investigate with warships
pliny stays and sturdies
EP - danger zone, fallout debris - blocks route
Pomponianus at Stabiae
Wind direction = can’t leave Stabiae
flames and fire from Vesuvius
EP batched dine and went to bed

3

day 2

Stabiae - pumice and ash fill courtyards - EP nearly trapped indoors, buildings shake
tied pillow to heads - falling pumice and stones
P + mum scolded for staying
leave at dawn - crowds of shrieking people
darkness at Stabiae even though morning
EP goes to shore - options to leave by sea - wild and dangerous
cloud split = bursts of flame, fire like lightning
clouds sink to earth
smell of sulfur
EP lies down drinks cold water, tried to stand, collapses and dies choking
cloud collapses - pyroclastic surge
clouds got to Misenum - people shrieked, wailed, shouted, finding others, mourned fate, prayed for death, asked gods for help, believed end of universe

4

day 3

more earthquakes overnight
EP body recovered
5000 died

5

pompeii burial

slow, shallow, loose
fallout cloud, several hours
pumice and ash
pyroclastic surge
3-5m deep

6

herculaneum burial

fast, deep, solid
not under eruption cloud
pyroclastic flow - boiling rain mixed with lava
very quick - few mins
18-25m - solidified when cooled

7

pompeii escape and death

fallout cloud - harder to escape
rocks = deadly, roof collapses
no escape by sea
many did leave, 2000/10,000
hot gases and ash = suffocation - cemented lungs
sheltered inside = trapped
looted - bodies found with money, man near fullery
gases kill people - toxic
some planned to leave - bodies with possessions
some expected to return - guard dog chained up
knew they were dying - covering face with mouth

8

herculaneum escape and death

escape easy option for a while
had time to leave, less obvious danger, so didn’t leave
remains of lunch meal on table
hoped for rescue by sea - skeletons in boat sheds and bones on beech
no time to escape in end
carbonised human bones on beech
killed by thermal shock if inside - 300
death - instant

9

1748

pompeii dug, then forgotten
people robbed from sites
theatres and herculaneum

10

1860 - fiorelli

cleared streets, town plan, divided into numbered sections (regions, insulae, doorways)
position and finds recorded in place
casts:
- uncover cavity, imprint left by person or object sealed by ash
- pump plaster to fill in space - plaster cast which sets
- excavate around it to reveal cast

11

what were casts made of

people
dog
doors
shutters
tree roots

12

what did some casts show

people covering faces
dogs buried alive

13

excavation of herculaneum

slow and hard
solidified pyroclastic flow
modern town Erculano built on top of it
7 insulae fully excavated

14

forum general layout

road stops at the edge - blocks to stop any wheeled vehicles
no traffic
busy place
all building exteriors - bright, vivid colours

15

basilica

roof all way - unusual but shows importance
modern day law courts, business centre
trade deals but not actual trade, just deals initialised
speeches for court trials, free

16

curia

town councillors for life

17

aedile

maintained for public buildings and order

18

duumvir

main officials for administrator of justice
1 year post, 2 elected by people

graffiti shows elections were popular, encouraged people to vote for certain people

19

speaker’s platform

public announcements
candidates at election times

AE - raises platform in front of T of Jupiter
west side of forum

20

comitium

10 doorways
function - voting in
doorway let’s lots of people in and out
cast lost by dropping vote in urn with name of candidate

21

colonnades

shaded walkways on both sides and along bottom of forum discuss, gossip
notices painted on them, case results, election results, notices for games
social hub
stalls in colonnades for foods, clothes

22

latrines

drainage hole in corner
busy area

23

building of eumachia

AE. - statue at end of building, rich fuller
AE. - expensive rare marble, massive doorway, unusual, shows importance and wealth of fullers
place - where fullers can gather, traded good for trade, store merchandise, travelling fullers - lodging

24

macellum

colonnades courtyard
fresco of fish
booths along wall
stalls under colonnades
food market
covered circular market space - fish scales, fishmonger stalls
coins discovered - money changers booth

25

weights and measuring table

table with holes
standard volume measures of goods - fair trade

26

shops and warehouses

bigger booths outside of macellum walls
warehouse building

27

pompeii - personal glory

marble decoration building of eumachia

28

pompeii - impressive and displays wealthy town

double height white stone pillared colonnade
macellum decorated with frescos and repainted after earthquake 62AD
large basilica - covered roof

29

pompeii - well organised, clean and tidy

central area paved white stone
roads end and bollards used to keep traffic out
all food stalls were grouped in macellum

30

pompeii - buildings in deliberate places

political buildings grouped together
forum laid out with T of Jupiter (head god) at top

31

pompeii - lack of effort to carry out repairs after 62AD earthquake

damaged forum buildings, not fully repaired
relief from house in pompeii showing earthquake effect in T of Jupiter

32

baths - to stay fit

Stabian baths - swimming pool and bowling alley
All baths - palaestra
wrestling
discus
exercised naked

33

baths - to get clean

oil flasks, strigil
applied oil to loosen dirt
scaled dirt off with strigil

34

baths - to have sauna

piles of tiles to support raised floor - rooms heated by hypocaust system, hot air circulates under floors and up walls, hot rooms warmed first then warm rooms
boiler heated by same fire
bonze brazier - warmed rooms without hypocaust - extra

35

3 different rooms in baths

frigidarium - optional plunge pool first
tepidarium - acclimatise, optional ointment rub
caldarium - to sweat, can repeat

36

baths as sociable and popular

Stabian baths and Forum baths - 2 sets of room, one for each gender
latrines - sir down in long rows and discuss
Pompeii had 3 baths
Herc. had 2 (so far)
central bath was still being built - demand and growing popularity
different layouts - experimenting
1000+ lamps found - open in evenings too

37

why might baths not be popular

Stabian baths badly damaged in 62AD
not enough money and effort to restore?

38

baths as luxurious and important

richly decorated - colourful and patterned ceilings
beautiful mosaic floors
relaxing and interesting
sophisticated and thoughtful

39

Aqua Augusta

aquaduct
damaged in 62AD
massive water system, supplying towns in area, part of higher network
wasn’t functioning 72AD, relying on own water collection

40

Castellum Divisiorum

water dividing building
high point in town
3 channels - private houses, public fountains, public baths
damaged in 62AD earthquake, damaged by 79AD
careful planning
fairness - fountains prioritised in times of shortages, middle one
cut off from private homes in shortage

41

water distribution

both - lead pipes under sidewalks, run a,omg streets, careful planning

pompeii - water towers with pipes running up and back down
tanks at top - reduced water pressure to help manage

both - fountains - flows out into basins onto streets, keeps water fresh

42

serrage in pompeii

no underground system
latrines have pits underneath - don’t flow onto streets
streets are open sewers for rubbish and overflow water

43

serrage herculaneum

massive system of tunnels underground - cistern
drainage holes from latrines link to sewer
holes in wide of roads
more advances system than P - careful planning and makes Herc. more pleasant place to live

44

sets in pompeii

lava blocks form surface of roads
large stepping stones set into roads allow carts and animals and wheels to pass either side
streets range in size - not all are busy
careful planning and advances town organisation
keeps people on foot out of dirt

45

streets in herc.

same as pompeii but no stepping stones
quieter town - less busy, less trade, less traffic

46

large theatre

built into natural hollow
horseshoe shape - 5000, 40cm per person
3 seating areas: ima cavea, media cavea, summa cavea
summa damaged in 62AD
wall sockets near top of wall
busy squashed together
ima - musicians and council
wooden posts - shade for audience
two entrance passageways
rich citizens paid for parts to be build - Holconii brothers
show odd wealth and gain support

47

odeon

120p
had a roof - used in all weathers all year round
2 entrance passageways
duumvirs paid for it

48

theatre at herc.

not fully excavated
2000
smaller than P one

49

entertainment in large theatre

plays
Mosaic of street musicians, instruments
graffiti advertise sprinklings and perfumed water
pleasant - disguise smells

50

entertainment in odeon

concerts and recitals
singing and poetry
smaller venue
not as popular

51

actors

men
working in touring troops
mosaic of actors preparing backstage
fan graffiti - Paris, pearl of the stage, the fans of paris
used in decoration - interesting
fans of theatre and had favourites

52

Yes - popular entertainment

size of large theatre
herc. has own theatre
rich paid for buildings
frescos in private homes
fan graffiti
a lot of people in town of 10,000

53

No - not popular entertainment

repairs to summa cavea nor carried out by 79AD
odeon small seating
lack of interest and demand
music and poetry not popular

54

relief of tomb of UMBRICIUS SCAURUS

pairs or gladiators fighting
secutor, retiarius
different types of gladiators

55

Armour finds

15 different helmets
variety of armour pieces

56

advertising for games

graffiti notices - written on walls in streets
date of games, whose gladiators were fighting, how many, if there will be sprinklings, name of man fighting
free of charge
happen almost every month
shade and cool - pleasant
very popular - open to all

57

events at games

parade of gladiators
sponsor dedicated games to Manes, god of dead (president’s box)
mock fights warm crowd up
paired conflicts
musicians play during fights
crowd cheers - audience involved
fight until 1 severely wounded
try to sounds - referee restrains victor
wounded man holds up a finger for mercy
sponsor and crowd decide fate - reprieve or dragged through gate of death

58

results graffiti

gives type of gladiator, name, number of fights, outcome of fight
show that death = uncommon - most reprieved
gladiators - popular + valuable

59

heating water

tanks for water (boilers) heated by same fire as hypocaust
tank on top = caldarium
tant next to it = tepidarium
water from tanks reached baths through pipes

60

bronze half cylinder in stabian baths

full of hot water, heated by hottest air leaving furnace, lower than the bath it is joined to, hot water rises out of cylinder into bath
cold water sinks back not cylinder and is reheated