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Flashcards in P1 Deck (24):
1

Vibrate

The movement of particles back and forth around a fixed position

2

Diffusion

The movement of molecules (particles) from a high concentration to a low concentration

3

Pressure

This is caused by the force of many particles colliding with the inside of their container

4

Volume

The amount of space something occupies (the volume of a gas is always the same as the volume of its container)

5

Temperature

How hot or cold something is. It is connected to how much kinetic energy the particles have

6

Inversely proportional

As one variable increases the other decreases. If x and y were inversely proportional, then y is directly proportional to 1/x

7

Expansion

An increase in volume

8

Contraction

A decrease in volume

9

Mass

How much matter is in something. It is measured in kg.

10

Density

Mass of something divided by its volume

11

Eureka can

A piece of equipment that helps to measure the volume of irregulary shaped objects

12

Kinetic theory of matter

everything is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. The way these particles are arranged determines whether something is a solid, liquid or gas. In a solid the particles are arranged in tightly packed rows; there are strong forces/bonds holding the particles next to one other. The particles vibrate. In a liquid the particles are still close together, but they are not aranged in rows; the forces/bonds between them are weaker and allow them to move. In a gas there are no forces between particles and they are free to move randomly in all directions.

13

Use the kinetic theory to explain evaporation

The particles on the surface absorb energy from its surroundings and move faster. They are then able to break the attractive bonds with neighboring particles and escape as vapor during evaporation.

14

Use the kinetic theory to explain dissolving

The different particles get mixed together, and the smaller particles fill the gaps between larger particles.

15

Unit of measurment for pressure

Pa or kPa

16

Relationship between pressure and volume

They are inversely proportional

17

Boyle's law

for the a fixed mass (amount) of gas at a constant temeprature the pressure mulptiplied by the volume will give you a fixed number (a constant). Pressure x Volume = a constant (PV=k)

18

Thermal expansion

As temperature rises, particles vibrate more. This means that on average the space between each particle gets bigger. Overall the volume of the material gets larger. (The particles themselves do not change size). Gases expand the most, and solids expand the least.

19

Disadvantages of thermal expansion

train tracks - the train tracks could expand and become deformed.

20

Advantages of thermal expansion

in thermometers - the mercury or alcohol in them expands as the temperature rises and contracts when it falls. This amount of expansion could be measured by a scale on the side.

21

Equation for density

Density = mass/volume p=m/V

22

Bonds (strong or weak)

The "ties" that hold the particles near one another

23

Brownian motion

The random movement of particles (e.g pollen) floating in a liquid or gas. Caused by being struck continuously by the particles of the liquid or gas.

24

Evaporation

Change of state from liquid to as. Note that this can happen at any temperatrue unlike boiling which only happens at a substance's boiling point