Flashcards in P1 Deck (24):
The movement of particles back and forth around a fixed position
The movement of molecules (particles) from a high concentration to a low concentration
This is caused by the force of many particles colliding with the inside of their container
The amount of space something occupies (the volume of a gas is always the same as the volume of its container)
How hot or cold something is. It is connected to how much kinetic energy the particles have
As one variable increases the other decreases. If x and y were inversely proportional, then y is directly proportional to 1/x
An increase in volume
A decrease in volume
How much matter is in something. It is measured in kg.
Mass of something divided by its volume
A piece of equipment that helps to measure the volume of irregulary shaped objects
Kinetic theory of matter
everything is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. The way these particles are arranged determines whether something is a solid, liquid or gas. In a solid the particles are arranged in tightly packed rows; there are strong forces/bonds holding the particles next to one other. The particles vibrate. In a liquid the particles are still close together, but they are not aranged in rows; the forces/bonds between them are weaker and allow them to move. In a gas there are no forces between particles and they are free to move randomly in all directions.
Use the kinetic theory to explain evaporation
The particles on the surface absorb energy from its surroundings and move faster. They are then able to break the attractive bonds with neighboring particles and escape as vapor during evaporation.
Use the kinetic theory to explain dissolving
The different particles get mixed together, and the smaller particles fill the gaps between larger particles.
Unit of measurment for pressure
Pa or kPa
Relationship between pressure and volume
They are inversely proportional
for the a fixed mass (amount) of gas at a constant temeprature the pressure mulptiplied by the volume will give you a fixed number (a constant). Pressure x Volume = a constant (PV=k)
As temperature rises, particles vibrate more. This means that on average the space between each particle gets bigger. Overall the volume of the material gets larger. (The particles themselves do not change size). Gases expand the most, and solids expand the least.
Disadvantages of thermal expansion
train tracks - the train tracks could expand and become deformed.
Advantages of thermal expansion
in thermometers - the mercury or alcohol in them expands as the temperature rises and contracts when it falls. This amount of expansion could be measured by a scale on the side.
Equation for density
Density = mass/volume p=m/V
Bonds (strong or weak)
The "ties" that hold the particles near one another
The random movement of particles (e.g pollen) floating in a liquid or gas. Caused by being struck continuously by the particles of the liquid or gas.