Flashcards in P3: Particle Model of Matter Deck (59):
Name the 3 states of matter:
What 4 differences between the states of matter does the particle model explain?
1) particles of a certain material are always the same no matter what state.
2) particles have different amounts of energy in different states.
3) forces between particles are different in each state.
4) particles are arranged differently in different states.
Give 3 facts about SOLIDS:
1) particles are held close together by strong forces in a regular fixed pattern.2) the particles don't have much energy.3) can only vibrate around a fixed position.
Give 3 facts about LIQUIDS:
1) the particles are held closed together in an irregular pattern.2) particles have more energy than the particles in a solid.3) they can move past eachother in random directions at low speeds.
Give 3 facts about GASES:
1) the particles aren't held close together. NO FORCES.2) particles have more energy than in liquids and solids.3) particles constantly move around in random directions at a range of speeds.
Do gas particles bump into eachother and the sides of the container they're in?
When gas particles hit something what happens?
They apply force to it.
What is pressure?
The force applied over a given area.
What happens when you increase the temperature of a Gas?
You increase its pressure.
The temprature of a gas depends on :
The average energy in the kinetic energy stores of the gas particles.
The hotter the gas, the higher the....
If particles have more energy in their kinetic stories they.......
The hotter the gas the faster the particles.......
Move on average.
Faster particles hit the sides of the container more often. What does this so?
It increases the force on the container.
Increasing the temperature of a gas increases........any exceptions?
It's pressure. ONLY IF the space the gas takes up (volume) doesn't change.
What is Density?
A measure of how much mass there is in a certain space.
Equation to work out density:Units?
P = MASS DIVIDED BY VOLUME(P = density kg/m cubed)Mass - kgVolume - m cubed
The density of an object depends on..........
What it's made of and how it's particles are arranged.
What are the particles in a dense material like?
Particles are packed tightly together.
What's denser?SOLIDS or LIQUIDS?
What's Denser?LIQUIDS or GASES?
4 steps to find the density of a regular shaped object:
1) use a balance to measure the mass.2) measure it's length width and height with a ruler.3)calculate the volume.4) find density.
7 steps to finding the density of a irregularly shaped object:
1) use a balance to measure mass.2) fill a eureka can with water.3) place a measuring cylinder under the spout.4) put object in water.5) the volume of water that the spout has it equal to the volume of object.7) find density.
4 steps to find the density of a liquid:
1) place a measuring cylinder on a balance and zero the balance.2) pour 50ml of the liquid into the cylinder.3) record the liquid's mass shown on the mass balance.4) find density.
What is 1 ml equal to?
What is 1 cm cubed equal to?
0.000001 m cubed.
What is Internal Energy?
The total energy stored by particles in a system.
What kind of energy do atoms and molecules have?
Kinetic energy storePotential energy store
The internal energy of a system is......
The total energy that all its particles have in their Kinetic and potential energy stores.
One thing that increases Internal Energy:
Heating. It transfers energy to its particles.
Heating a system may lead to......
A change in tempratureOrA change of state
How much the temprature of the internal energy is depends on........ (3 things)
The mass of the system, it's specific heat capacity and how much energy is transferred to it.
When does a change of state happen?h
When particles have enough energy in their kinetic energy stores to break the bonds holding them together.
Does mass change in a change of state?
A change of state is a physical change not a chemical change.What does this mean?
You don't end up with a new material, the particles are just arranged differently.
Does the number of particles change when the state changes?
What happens if you reverse a change of state?
It will get back all the properties it had before the change.
GAS TO LIQUID?
LIQUID TO SOLID?
SOLID TO LIQUID?
LIQUID TO GAS?
Boiling / evaporating
SOLID straight to a GAS?
What changes and what doesn't change in a change of state?
INTERNAL ENERGY CHANGES.TEMPERATURE DOESN'T.
Heating a material transfers energy to the material. What could this do?
It either increased the temprature of the material OR changes it's state.
When a material cools, the energy is.......
Transferred away from it.
What forms when a material condenses or freezes?What does this cause?
Bonds form. This causes energy to be released. INTERNAL ENERGY DECREASES.
What is Specific Latent Heat?
The energy needed to change the state of a 1kg mass.
What is the energy transferred during a change of state called?
For heating, latent heat is.......
The energy gained to cause a change of state.
For cooling, latent heat is........
The energy released by a change in state.
FORMULA FOR SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT:
ENERGY (J) = MASS (kg) X specific latent heat (J/kg)
Specific latent heat has different names for different changes of state:What is it called for:Solid to liquid Liquid to gas
Solid and a liquid = specific latent heat of fusionLiquid and a gas= specific latent heat of vaporisation
GAS straight to a SOLID?
The internal energy of a system/material is.....
The kinetic energy and potential energy it's particles have as they move.
In a gas, increasing the temprature gives the particles......
More energy and they move around faster.
The temprature of a system depends on both how much.....
Energy it has and how much mass it is made from.
In any state, heating the particle increases their.....This can increase the.......
internal energy.temprature of the material or cause it to change state.
When a material is changing state, it's......
temprature doesn't change.