P3: Particle model of matter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in P3: Particle model of matter Deck (30)
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1

Describe the arrangement and movement of particles in solids.

1) Strong forces of attraction hold particles together in a fixed, regular arrangement.

2) Particles vibrate about a fixed point.

3) Solids are more dense than liquids and gases of the same substance.

2

Describe the arrangement and movement of particles in liquids.

1) Forces of attraction are weaker than in solids.

2) Particles are close together but in an irregular arrangement.

3) Particles are loosely packed; they move around each other randomly at low speeds.

4) Liquids are less dense than solids of the same substance.

3

Describe the arrangement and movement of particles in gases.

1) Weak forces of attraction between particles means particles are widely spaced.

2) Particles have more KE than solids and liquids; their average KE is related to their temperature.

3) Particles are in constant random motion (random speeds and directions).

4) Gases have low densities.

4

What is the formula for density?

Density = mass / volume

ρ = m / V

remember that volume is V, not v, which is velocity.

5

1g/cm3 = ___kg/m3

1000 kg/m3

6

1000kg/m= ___g/cm3 

1g/cm3 

7

How would you find the volume of an irregular object?

• Submerge the object in a eureka can filled with water.

• Position a measuring cylinder next to the can so that the volume of water displaced by the object is transferred to the cylinder.

• Record the volume of water in the cylinder, in ml, and convert this into cm3; this gives you the object's volume.

8

How would you find the density of an irregular object?

• Measure the object's mass, using weighing scales.

• Submerge the object in a eureka can filled with water.

• Position a measuring cylinder next to the can so that the volume of water displaced by the object is transferred to the cylinder.

• Record the volume of water in the cylinder, in ml, and convert this into cm3; this gives you the object's volume.

• Find the object's density using density = mass/volume.

 

9

How would you find the density of a liquid?

• Place a measuring cylinder on a weighing scale and zero the balance.

• Add a set volume of liquid (1ml = 1cm3) to the cylinder and measure the mass on the scales.

• Find the density using density = mass/volume.

• You could improve the accuracy by taking repeat readings and calculating an average.

10

What is the word for when a solid becomes a gas?

Sublimation

11

What is the word for when a gas becomes a solid?

Deposition

12

The internal energy of a substance is stored in what two ways?

  1. Kinetic energy stored in particles.
  2. Potential energy stored in their bonds.

13

If energy is supplied to a substance, what determines how much hotter it will get?

  1. Mass
  2. Specific heat capacity/what it's made of
  3. Energy supplied

14

What is specific heat capacity?

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1ºC.

15

The formula for specific heat capacity is given (ΔE = mcΔθ). What is its symbol and unit?

Symbol: c

Unit: J / kg°C

16

What is specific latent heat?

The energy required to change the state of a substance, or the energy released when a substance changes state.

17

Specific latent heat, solid ⇌ liquid, = ___

Specific latent heat, liquid ⇌ gas, = ___

  1. SLH of fusion
  2. SLH of vaporisation

18

What is the formula for specific latent heat?

E = mL

19

What is the unit and symbol for specific latent heat?

  1. Unit = J/kg
  2. Symbol = L

20

Why is the kinetic energy of particles in gases given as an average?

Because particles move at varying speeds. (This is due to collisions.)

21

What causes pressure in containers filled with gases?

Particles move at high speeds so they collide with, and exert a force on, the walls of the container. 

 

22

In a sealed container filled with gas, the outward ___ is the total ___ exerted by all of the gas particles on a ___ ___ of the container walls.

In a sealed container filled with gas, the outward pressure is the total force exerted by all of the gas particles on a unit area of the container walls.

23

The pressure of a gas causes a net outward force at ___ ___ to the surface of its container.

The pressure of a gas causes a net outward force at right angles to the surface of its container.

24

  1. For a gas of a fixed mass at a fixed temperature, what is the relationship between the pressure and the volume of the container?
  2. What is the formula that shows this?

  1. Pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
  2. pV = constant

25

What is the unit and symbol for pressure?

  1. Unit = pascals (Pa)
  2. Symbol = p

26

The pressure of a gas causes a net outward force at right angles to the surface of its container. What other force does the container experience?

There is also a force on the outside of the container, due to the pressure of the gas around it.

27

If a container easily changes size, what will happen when it experiences a change in pressure?

It will expand or compress, according to the resultant force of the pressures inside and outside it.

28

Describe and explain what happens when a helium baloon is released into the air.

  1. Helium is less dense than air, so the balloon rises.
  2. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height, so the pressure outside of the balloon decreases as it rises.
  3. The force on the surface of the balloon, coming from the gas on the inside pushing out, is now greater than that from the outside.
  4. This means that the resultant force on the balloon's surface is one that pushes out, so the balloon expands.
  5. This happens until the internal pressure drops to reach equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure.
  6. This repeats in a cycle until the balloon pops. 

29

Explain why a bicycle tyre feels warmer after being inflated with a pump.

  1. Gas inside the pump applies pressure to the plunger of the pump, exerting a force on it.
  2. Work has to be done against this force to push down the plunger.
  3. This transfers energy to the kinetic energy stores of the gas particles, increasing the gas' temperature.
  4. When gas particles collide with the surface of the tyre, they transfer some of their kinetic energy to the tyre, warming the tyre up.

30

Describe what happens to the internal energy of a liquid when it is heated and explain why.

 

  1. When the liquid is heated, the internal energy store of the substance increases.
  2. This is because energy is transferred by heating to the kinetic and potential energy stores of the particles.