Flashcards in P5:Forces Deck (138):

1

## What do vector quantities have

###
•Magnitude

•Direction

2

## Physical quantities of vectors include ...

###
•force

•velocity

•displacement

•acceleration

•momentum

3

## What is a scalar quantity

### A physical quantity that only contains magnitude and NOT DIRECTION

4

## Scalar quantities include...

###
•Speed

•Distance

•Mass

•Temperature

•Time

5

## What usually represents a vector, and what does this symbol show

###
Usually represented by an arrow

•length of arrow represents magnitude

•direction of arrow represents the direction of the quantity

6

## Forces can be...

###
•contact (when to objects have to be touching for a force to act) E.G:friction, air resistance

OR

•non-contact (when an object doesn’t need to be touching for a force to act)

E.G:magnetic force, gravitational force

7

## A force is a...

### Push or pull on an object that is caused by it interacting with something

8

## When two objects interact...

### There is a force produced on both sides

9

## Define the term ‘interaction pair’

###
A pair of forces that are equal and opposite and act on two interacting objects

10

## Gravitational force is...

### The force of attraction between masses

11

## What are gravity’s two main important effects

###
•on the surface of the planet, it makes all things fall towards the ground

AND

•it gives everything a weight

12

## Define the term ‘mass’

### The amount of of ‘stuff’ in an object

13

## What is weight

###
Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity.

Close to the earth, this force is caused by the gravitational field around the eating

14

## Gravitational field strength varies, where is it strongest

### It’s stronger the closer you are to the mass and it’s stronger for larger masses

15

##
What does the weight of an object depend on?

### The strength of a gravitational force at the location of the object. This means the weight of an object changes with location

16

## Weight is measured in ...

### Newtons

17

## What is the term to describe the weight force acting from a single point on an object

### ‘Centre of mass’

18

## Weight is measured using...

### A calibrated spring balance or newtonmeter

19

##
Mass and weight are directly proportional.

What equation would you use to work out the weight of an object?

### Weight(N)=Mass(KG) x Gravitational Field Strength(N/KG)

20

## Increasing the mass of an object increases his weight. Write this using the direct proportional symbol

### W ∝ M

21

## What can you use to show the forces acting on an object

### A free body diagram

22

## What do the things on a free body diagram represent

###
•The size of the arrows show the relative magnitudes of the forces

•The direction show the direction of forces acting on the object

23

## A resultant force is...

### The overall force on a point or object

24

## How many forces act on an object along any direction

### At least two

25

## If you have a number of forces acting at a singles point what can you replace them with

###
A single force

AKA: the resultant force

26

## If the forces all act along a parallel line, how is the overall effect found ...

### By adding those going in the same direction and subtracting any force going in the opposite direction

27

## If w resultant force moves an object through a distance...

### Energy is transferred & work is done

28

## To make something move...

### A force must be applied

29

## The thing applying the force needs...

###
A source of energy

E.G:food or fuel

30

## Work is done even if the energy transferred is ...

### Useful or wasted

31

## Equation for work done

###
Work Done(J)=Force(N) x Distance(m)

W=FxS

32

## One joule of work is done when a force of...

### One newton caused an object to move a distance of one metre.

33

## Conversion of joules to newton meters

### 1J = 1Nm

34

## How to use a scale drawing to find a resultant force

###
1.Draw all the forces acting on an object, to scale ‘tip-to-tail’

2.Draw a straight line from the start of the first force to the end of the last force (resultant force)

3.Measure length of resultant force on the diagram to find the magnitude, angle and direction of the force

35

##
If all the forces acting on an object combine to give a resultant force of zero

Or

If the forces are balanced

### The object is at an equilibrium

36

## For three forces the scale diagram should...

### Form a triangle

37

## To draw an equilibrium the tip of the last force...

### Should end where the tail of the first force you drew began

38

## If told to find the missing force when an object is at equilibrium, you should

###
•draw out the forces you do know

•join the end of the last force to the start of the first force

•^ this line is the missing force so you can measure its size and direction

39

## Not all forces act...

### Horizontally or vertically, some are at awkward angles

40

## If you find a force with an awkward angle...

###
•split it into two components at right angles (acting together these components have the same effect as the single force)

41

## To resolve an single force...

###
•split it into components by drawing it on a grid

•draw the force to scale

•add horizontal and vertical components along grid lines

•Then measure the components

42

## When you apply a force to an object you may cause it to...

###
Stretch, compress or bend

^these actions transfer energy

43

## If an object is being stretched, compressed or bent you need...

### More than one force acting on the object otherwise the object would simply move in the direction of the applied force

44

## An object has been elastically deformed if...

###
It can go back to its original shape and length after the force has been removed. They are called elastic objects

E.G: a spring

45

## An object has been inelastically deformed if...

### It doesn’t return to its original shape and length after the force has been removed

46

## Work is done when a forced stretches or compressed an object because...

### Energy is transferred to the elastic potential energy store of the object

47

## If work is done in an elastically deformed object...

### ALL energy is transferred to the objects elastic potential energy store

48

## Extension is directly proportionately to force

###
F ∝ e

This is the equation:

F(N)=K(N/m) x e(m)

49

## The spring constant depends on...

###
The material that you are stretching

•a stiffer spring has a greater spring constant

50

## The F=Ke equation also works for compression...

###
Where e is just the difference between the natural and compressed lengths

(The compression)

51

## There is a limit to the amount of force you can apply to an object...

### To keep on increasing it proportionally

52

##
Distance is just how far an object has moved its has...

### A scalar quantity

53

## Displacement measures the distance and direction in w straight line from an objects starting point to its finishing point

###
It is a vector quantity

E.G: a bearing

54

##
EXAMPLE:

If you walk 5m north and 5m south...

###
Your displacement is 0

But the distance travelled is 10m

55

## Speed and velocity both measure how fast you’re going, but...

###
•Speed is a scalar quantity

•velocity is a vector quantity

56

## you can have objects travelling at a constant speed with a changing velocity

###
When an object is changing direction whilst staying at the same speed

E.G:a car going round a roundabout

57

## If you want to measure the speed of an object moving with a constant speed you should...

###
Time how long it takes the object to travel a certain distance

58

## The equation for measure an objects speed

###
Speed(m/s)= distance travelled(m) / time(s)

V= m/s

59

##
Objects rarely travel at a constant speed, your speed is always changing...

###
The formula:

V=s / t

Gives the average (mean) speed during that time period

60

## A persons walking speed...

###
1.5m/s

•many things can effect this, for example a persons fitness,age, distance travelled or the terrain

61

## A persons running speed

###
3m/s

•many things can effect this, for example a persons fitness,age, distance travelled or the terrain

62

## A persons cycling speed

### 6m/s

63

## A cars speed

### 25m/s

64

## A trains speed

### 30m/s

65

## A planes speed

### 250m/s

66

## The speed of sound (330m/s in the air) changes depending on...

###
What the sound waves are travelling through, the speed of the wind

67

## Wind speed can be affected by things like

###
•Temperature

•atmospheric pressure

•buildings in that area

Or

•structures near by

68

## Acceleration is...

### How quickly you’re speeding up, it is the change in velocity in a certain amount of time

69

## Equation for acceleration

### Acceleration (m/s {squared}) =

70

## Uniform acceleration means...

### A constant acceleration

71

## Acceleration due to gravity is uniform for objects in free fall.

### It’s roughly equally to 9.8m/s² bear the earths surface and has the same value as gravitational field strength

72

## Equation for uniform acceleration

###
V² - U²= 2as

Final velocity(m/s) - initial velocity(m/s) = acceleration(m/s²) x distance (m)

73

## To estimate an acceleration...

### Use the typical speed of the object and ÷ by the time

74

## Use distance time graphs to show...

### An object moving on a straight line

75

##
Gradient = speed

### The steeper the graph, the faster the speed

76

##
DTG:

Flat sections

### Stationary

77

##
DTG:

Straight uphill

### Travelling at a steady speed

78

##
DTG:

Curve

### Acceleration or deceleration

79

##
DTG:

Steepening curve

### Speeding up

80

##
DTG:

Levelling off curve

### Slowing down

81

## Velocity time graphs show...

### How an objects velocity changes

82

##
VTG:

Gradient

### Acceleration

83

##
VTG:

Flat section

### Steady speed

84

##
VTG:

Steeper gradient

### Greater acceleration or deceleration

85

##
VTG:

Uphill sections (/)

### Acceleration

86

##
VTG:

Downhill sections(\)

### Deceleration

87

##
VTG:

A curve

### Change in acceleration

88

## The area under any section of the graph is...

### Equal to the distance travelled in that time interval

89

## If the graph is curved...

### Use a tangent to the curve at a point to find the acceleration

90

## If an object has no force propelling it along he will always...

### Slow down and stop because of friction

91

## Friction always acts in...

### The opposite direction to movement

92

## To travel at a stress speed...

### The driving forces need to balance the frictional forces

93

## You get friction between two surfaces in contact...

### Or when an object passes through fluid (this is also know as drag)

94

## You can reduce friction between surface by using...

### Lubricant

95

## Drag is the resistance you get in a...

###
Fluid (a gas or a liquid)

•Air resistance is a type of drag

96

## The most important factor by far in reducing drag is...

###
Keeping the shape of the object streamlined

(This is where the object is designed to allow fluid to flow easily across it, reducing drag)

97

## Parachutes work in the opposite way...

### They want as much drag as they can get

98

## Frictional Forces from fluids always...

###
Increase with speed

(E.G: a car has much more friction to work against when travelling at 70mph compared to 30mph)

99

## When a falling object first sets off, the force of gravity is much more...

### Than the frictional force slowing it down, so it accelerates

100

## When an object is falling, as the speed increases...

###
•The friction builds up, this gradually reduces the acceleration •Eventually the frictional force is equal to the accelerating force

•The resultant force is zero

•It will have reached its maximum speed or terminal velocity and will fall at a steady speed

101

## Typically, the less streamlined an object is...

### The lower it’s terminal velocity

102

## Objects with a large surface area...

### Tend to have lower terminal velocity as there is more air resistance acting on it at any given speed

103

## Terminal velocity depends on shape and area

###
For example, if you dropped a marble and a beach ball off a tall building, the marbles terminal velocity would be higher than the terminal velocity of the beach ball.

The beach ball spends less time accelerating before the air resistance is large enough to equal the accelerating force

104

## Newton’s first law

###
A resultant force is needed to make something start moving, speed up or slow down

•if the resultant force on a stationary object is zero, the object will stay stationary

•if the resultant force on a moving object is zero, it will just carry on moving at the same velocity

105

## A non zero resultant force will always...

###
Produce an acceleration or deceleration in the direction of the force

•On a free body diagram, the arrows will always be unequal

106

## Five different forms acceleration can take

###
•Starting

•Stopping

•Speeding up

•Slowing down

•Changing direction

107

## Acceleration is proportional to the resultant force

### F ∝ a

108

## Acceleration is also...

### Inversely proportional to the mass of the object

109

## Newton’s second law

###
F= m a

Resultant force (N) = Mass(Kg) x Acceleration(m/s²)

110

## To estimate the acceleration

### Use the typical speed of an object and multiply it by the mass

111

## Inertia is...

### The tendency for motion to remain unchanged

112

## An objects inertial mass measures how...

### Difficult it is to change the velocity of an object

113

## Inertial mass can be found using Newton’s second law

###
m= F ÷ a

•inertial mass is just the ratio of a force over acceleration

114

## Newton’s third law

###
When two objects interact, the forces the exert on each other are Raquel and opposite

E.G:

If you push a trolley, the trolley will push back against you just as hard & when you stop pushing, so does the trolley

115

## An example of Newton’s third law is...

### An equilibrium situation, but if the two forces are different types and not acting on the force this isn’t an example of Newton’s third law

116

## In an emergency, a driver may perform an emergency stop...

### This is where maximum force is applied by the brakes in order to stop the car in the shortest possible distance

117

## The longer it takes to perform an emergency stop...

### The higher the risk of crashing into what ever is infront if you

118

## Distance it takes for a car to stop in an emergency is found by...

### Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance

119

## Thinking distance

### How far the car travels during the drivers reaction time

120

## Braking distance

### The distance taken to stop under the braking force (once brakes are applied)

121

## Breaking distance if a car is travelling at 30mph

### 14m

122

## Breaking distance if a car is travelling at 60mph

### 55m

123

## Breaking distance if a car is travelling at 70mph

### 70m

124

## Thinking distance is affected by

###
•your speed - the faster you’re going the further you’ll travel during the time it takes you to react

•your reaction time - the longer your reaction time, the longer you thinking distance

125

## Braking distance is affected by...

###
•Your speed - for a given braking force, the faster a vehicle travels, the longer it takes to stop

•Weather or road surface - if it’s wet or icy, or there are leaves or oil on the road, there is less grip(so less friction), can causes tyres to skid

•Condition of tyres - if bald, they can’t get rid of water in wet conditions = skidding

•How good your brakes are - if worn or faulty, they won’t apply as much force

126

## When the brake is pushed, this causes brake pads to be pressed onto the wheels...

### Contact force = friction, which causes work to be done.

127

## The work done between the brakes and the wheels transfer energy from the kinetic energy stores of the wheels...

### To the thermal energy stores of the brakes. The brakes increase in temperature.

128

## The faster a vehicle is going, the more energy it has in its kinetic stores...

### So the more work needs to be done to stop it. This means that the greater braking force is needed to make it stop within a certain distance

129

## A larger braking force means...

### A larger deceleration

130

## Very large deceleration can be dangerous because...

### They may cause brakes to overheat (they don’t work as well) or could cause the vehicle to skid

131

## Estimate the forces involved in accelerations if vehicles by...

### Using typical values

132

## Momentum(kg m/s)...

###
Mass(kg)x velocity(m/s)

P=m x v

133

## Momentum is...

### A property that all moving objects have

134

## The greater the mass of an object, or the greater its velocity...

### The more momentum the object has

135

## In a closed system the total momentum before an event (e.g a collision)...

###
Is the same after the event.

This is called conservation of momentum

136

## A closed system...

### Is the fancy was of saying that no external forces act

137

## If the momentum before an event is zero, the momentum after will be zero...

###
E.G:

In an explosion, the momentum before is zero. After the explosion, the pieces fly off in different directions, so that the total momentum cancels out to zero

138