Flashcards in Pack 2B definitions Deck (24):
molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural arrangement of atoms
compounds with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space
a type of steroisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a c=c double bond may be arranged differently in space due to the restricted rotation of the double bond
cis- trans isomerism
is a special type of E/Z isomerism in with there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond.
The cis isomer (Z isomer) has has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side .
The trans isomer (E isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on different sides)
the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom forming two radicals.
a species with an unpaired electron
the breaking of a covalent bond where both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms forming a cation and a anion.
an atom of a group of atoms that is attracted to an electron deficient center or atom where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron rich atom or center and accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
e.g. ethene + bromine (electrophile) ------> 1,2- dibromoethane
a reaction in which an atom or groups of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
e.g. bromoethane + hydroxide ion (nucleophile) ---> ethanol + bromide ion
the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
e.g. ethanol------>ethene + water
a type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
a sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
the first step of a radical substitution in which free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
the two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
the step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule
a Pi bond
the reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of bonded atoms by the sideways overlap of p orbitals.
fixes the carbon atoms in position at either end of the double bond preventing rotation.
a sigma bond
bond formed directly between two carbon atoms by the overlap of orbitals
a long molecular chain built up from monomers
small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
the process in which unsaturated alkane molecules (monomers) add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain.
a long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules