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This theory refers to the presence of dedicated pathways for each somatosensory modalitiy

A) specificity theory

B) Neuromatrix theory

C) Sensory-discriminative theory

D) Gate control theory

A) specificity theory


  Which aspect of an intervertebral disc is innervated by sensory fibres?


The annulus fibrosus and outer 1/3 of the nucleus pulposus

The annulus fibrosus and outer 2/3 of the nucleus pulposus 

The outer and inner fibres of the annulus fibrosus, but not the nucleus pulposus 

The outer fibres of the annulus fibrosus 

The outer fibres of the annulus fibrosus 


How many adults with chronic pain are estimated to have neuropathic symptoms?

  1. 7-8%
  2. 10-11%
  3. 4-5%
  4. 6-7%



Which of the following headaches is classified as a primary headache?

Cervicogenic headache

Sinus headache

Temporomandibular joint headache 

Tension type headache

Tension type headache


Sluka, pg 39 “Spinal Cord” - first sentence pg 39


Discuss the pathoanatomical changes associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

Osteocytes build up in the canal

Disc calcification resulting in loss of disc height

ligamentous ossification PLL

ligamentous buckling LF


B) This mechanism is likely reliant on the same inhibitory interneurons as supraspinal mechanisms for attenuation.

Cant be C) – this states ‘peripheral’

And cant be A) this answer states that it relies on the fact that mechanisms developed from an evolutionary standpoint in order to survive


Outline the potential sites of neurovascular compromise in thoracic outlet syndrome 

  1. Interscalene triangle 
  2. Costo clavicular space (clavicle and 1st rib)
  3. Under pec minor