Flashcards in Pain physiology and assessment Deck (59)
an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage
Define acute pain
the normal, predicted physiologic response to an adverse chemical, thermal, or mechanical stimulus. associated w/surgery, trauma, or acute illness
What is the biologic purpose of acute pain?
alerts person to a noxious environment and activates fight/flight mechanisms
Define chronic pain
Pain that persists or progresses over a long period of time and is resistant to medical treatments
What is the biologic purpose of chronic pain?
no biological usefulness. becomes disease in its own right
increased response to a stimulus that normally is painful
diminished response to a normally painful stimulus
absence of pain in response to stimulation that normally is painful
an abnormal sensation, whether spontaneous or evoked (pins/needles)
pain resulting from a stimulus such as light touch that doesn't normally elicit pain
What are the 4 physiologic processes associated with pain?
transduction, transmission, modulation, perception
Describe the onset and quality of fast pain
felt within 0.1s, is sharp in character
Describe the onset and quality of slow pain
begins after a second or more, is throbbing/aching in nature
Describe characteristics of pain receptors and their stimulation
all pain receptors are free nerve endings. they do not adapt to the stimulus. can by stimulated by mechanical (stretch), thermal, or chemical factors
What do prostaglandins and substance P do in relation to pain stimulation?
they enhance the sensitivity of pain endings but do not directly excite them
What causes pain?
the rate of tissue damage
What is the role of bradykinin in relation to pain?
causes the most pain and is the most responsible for causing the tissue damage type of pain.
What are the two classifications of pain?
nociceptive or neuropathic
Define nociceptive pain
involves the normal neural processing of pain that occurs when free nerve endings are activated by tissue damage or inflammation (somatic/visceral)
Define neuropathic pain
involves the abnormal processing of stimuli from the PNS or CNS, and is thought to serve no useful purpose.
What is an example of neuropathic pain?
peripheral neuropathy in diabetics
Define transduction as a part of the pain pathway
The conversion of a noxious stimulus. Transferred into electrical activity in the peripheral terminals of nociceptor sensory fibers
Define transmission as a part of the pain pathway
Define modulation as a part of the pain pathway
refers to the alteration (augmentation or suppression) of sensory input
Define perception as a part of the pain pathway
refers to the decoding of afferent input into the brain that gives rise to the individual's specific sensory experience
What type of fibers and tract transmit fast pain?
Type Adelta fibers, transmitted in the neospinothalamic tract
What type of fibers and tract transmit slow pain?
Type C fibers, transmitted in the paleospinothalamic tract
Describe 1st order neurons as a mechanism of pain
detect stimuli that threaten the integrity of innervated tissue. Get AP to dorsal horn
Describe 2nd order neurons as a mechanism of pain
located in the spinal cord and process nociceptive info. Get AP to the brain