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Flashcards in Pain physiology and assessment Deck (59)
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1

Define Pain

an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage

2

Define acute pain

the normal, predicted physiologic response to an adverse chemical, thermal, or mechanical stimulus. associated w/surgery, trauma, or acute illness

3

What is the biologic purpose of acute pain?

alerts person to a noxious environment and activates fight/flight mechanisms

4

Define chronic pain

Pain that persists or progresses over a long period of time and is resistant to medical treatments

5

What is the biologic purpose of chronic pain?

no biological usefulness. becomes disease in its own right

6

Define hyperalgesia

increased response to a stimulus that normally is painful

7

Define hypoalgesia

diminished response to a normally painful stimulus

8

Define analgesia

absence of pain in response to stimulation that normally is painful

9

Define paresthesia

an abnormal sensation, whether spontaneous or evoked (pins/needles)

10

Define allodynia

pain resulting from a stimulus such as light touch that doesn't normally elicit pain

11

What are the 4 physiologic processes associated with pain?

transduction, transmission, modulation, perception

12

Describe the onset and quality of fast pain

felt within 0.1s, is sharp in character

13

Describe the onset and quality of slow pain

begins after a second or more, is throbbing/aching in nature

14

Describe characteristics of pain receptors and their stimulation

all pain receptors are free nerve endings. they do not adapt to the stimulus. can by stimulated by mechanical (stretch), thermal, or chemical factors

15

What do prostaglandins and substance P do in relation to pain stimulation?

they enhance the sensitivity of pain endings but do not directly excite them

16

What causes pain?

the rate of tissue damage

17

What is the role of bradykinin in relation to pain?

causes the most pain and is the most responsible for causing the tissue damage type of pain.

18

What are the two classifications of pain?

nociceptive or neuropathic

19

Define nociceptive pain

involves the normal neural processing of pain that occurs when free nerve endings are activated by tissue damage or inflammation (somatic/visceral)

20

Define neuropathic pain

involves the abnormal processing of stimuli from the PNS or CNS, and is thought to serve no useful purpose.

21

What is an example of neuropathic pain?

peripheral neuropathy in diabetics

22

Define transduction as a part of the pain pathway

The conversion of a noxious stimulus. Transferred into electrical activity in the peripheral terminals of nociceptor sensory fibers

23

Define transmission as a part of the pain pathway

transmits info

24

Define modulation as a part of the pain pathway

refers to the alteration (augmentation or suppression) of sensory input

25

Define perception as a part of the pain pathway

refers to the decoding of afferent input into the brain that gives rise to the individual's specific sensory experience

26

What type of fibers and tract transmit fast pain?

Type Adelta fibers, transmitted in the neospinothalamic tract

27

What type of fibers and tract transmit slow pain?

Type C fibers, transmitted in the paleospinothalamic tract

28

Describe 1st order neurons as a mechanism of pain

detect stimuli that threaten the integrity of innervated tissue. Get AP to dorsal horn

29

Describe 2nd order neurons as a mechanism of pain

located in the spinal cord and process nociceptive info. Get AP to the brain

30

Describe 3rd order neurons as a mechanism of pain

project pain info to the brain. Get AP to the cortex