Paper 1 Section A Global urban change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 1 Section A Global urban change Deck (21)
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How is the world's population changing?

Fastest growth in recent years (last 100-150yrs).
Took 39yrs to double from 3 to 6 billion


What is urbanisation?

Urbanisation is the growth in the number of people living in towns and cities.
It is growing because of natural increase and migration.


How does urbanisation vary around the world?

Urban growth (the area that towns and cities cover) is greater in LICs and NEEs. The largest growth is in China, India and Nigeria (NEEs). Megacities are growing fastest in these areas.


What is a megacity?

a city with over 10million people


Why do cities grow?

Natural increase (link with DTM Stage 2 and 3)
Rural to urban migration


What encourages people to move from the countryside to the cities in LICs and NEEs?

Know at least 3 push and 3 pull factors.
Farmland poor - can't gro crops
Landlord takes back farmland
No opportunities or services (water, electricity, education)
Hope for food/water
Hope of a job - formal/informal work
Chance of education - better skills = better jobs
Better medical care
Better quality of life


Using an example you have studied assess the global and national importance of a city in a LIC or NEE

Locate it! Know the key areas - rich (Ipanema and Copacabana Beach) and poor (Rocinha/Nortn zone)
Rio is:
the cultural capital of Brazil (mix of people and cultures)
a UNESCO world heritage site
Natural surroundings (tourism)
Olympic Games in 2016
Manfacturing industries - chemicals and furniture
Reginal, national and international transport hub
Major port - cruises and industrial
Service industries - banking and finance
Major regional, national and international industrial centre - trade


Why has Rio grown?

Migration - from Argentina and Bolivia
Also from the Amazon Basin
New business opportunities by China and South Korea
Portugal (Brazil is a former colony of Portugal and it speaks the same language)
Skilled workers from the USA and UK


What are the social challenges for a city in a LIC or NEE that you have studied?

Challenges for Rio..
Think 'services' eg education, health, water, sanitation and energy (electricity) for residents, migrants and industries.


How do solutions for the social challenges create opportunities?

Improve services..what are the benefits for the people and industries?
Health is imporved through improved water supply (300km of pipeleines) and diet. People are more able to work and work longer. Infant mortality is reduced. Life expectancy increases. Sanitation has improved with 7 new treatment plants.
Education provided for children and adults - better literacy, more skills gained. Scholarships are offered. One shanty settlement has its own university.
Energy supply is improved meaning people have access to electricity for warmth, light and cooking.


How have Rio's economic challenges created economic opportunities?

Main industries that provide employment are the port, oil, manufacturing, retail, tourism, steel, construction and service industries.
Challeges are are a lack of employment. there are wide contrasts in wealth. 20% unemployment in the squatter settlements. Many people work i the informal sector which are poorly paid and work is irregular.
Opportunities include The School of Tomorrow which aims to provide education in the poorest and most violent areas.
Free childcare is available to teenage mothers to allow them to gain an education.
Violent crime is regular. Drugs gangs often control shanty towns. UPPs were set up up work with gangs in favelas and take back control eg Rocinha.


What are the environmental challenges and opportunities facing a city in a LIC or NEE (Rio)?

Air pollution from transport and industry
Opp? One way roads at peak times; toll roads; improvements in public transport.
Water pollution from industry (eg oil spills), a lack of sanitation and ships emptying their holds in the Guanabara Bay area.
Opp? 12 sewage works built; ships fined for polluting water; sewage pipes built to remove waste water.
Waste pollution - favelas are built on steep hills, making rubbish collection difficult. Waste is dumped at the side of homes causing diseases and attracting rats.
Opp? Rubbish collections; burning waste also creates energy for use in urban areas.


How are squatter settlements being improved? (Evaluate how a city in a LIC/NEE plans for its urban poor?)
Evaluate the successes of a strategy to improve an area for the urban poor

Use ROCINHA favela in Rio)
Site and service/ Self-help schemes to improve housing eg Rua 4
Green my Favela - community paly areas, plazas, trees planted;
Education? The 2 Brothers Foundation to educate the poor. Now has over 50 volunteers
The Favela Bairro project includes these ideas as well as building a cable car from the top to bottom of the settlement to allow people to get to the city centre to work. (one free round trip each day)
Better roads which are paved built, improved sanitation with sewage channels built at the edge of the streets.
UPPs to help control the favela.
Not a success because some people were displaced when the stadiums and facilities were built for the Olympics. A sense of community has not yet been established and some areas, Campo Grande, have no shops and are 90mins from the centre of Rio.
In some areas the residents lack the skills and resources to maintain their hiomes. The newly extended infrastructure is not beoing maintained either.


Urban areas in the UK - where do people live in the UK and what changes have there been in the last 200+ years?

The areas of greatest population density are in the south and the east, based on the capital city, London.
The nort and west are less populated.
Diuring the Industrial Revolution these areas were well-populated because of raw materials eg coal and manufacturing industries.
As the raw materials ran out and manufacturing moved overseas many people migrated to the south.
More recently people have moved from cities to rural areas to enjoy the peace and quiet and the cleaner air


Explain the importance of a UK city you have studied reginally, nationally and interntionally.

Locate it - NW of Eng.
Impotant educationally - universities attract international students eg UMIST, Man Met.
tourists visit Manchester for sporting and entertainment venues eg Manchester RAena, Man City/Utd football stadiums. Also main retail areas eg Trafford Centre and the Arndale in the centre of the city.
Importnat cultural city from migrant cultures. eg Chinatown.
Internationally Manchester is a major transport hub (International Airport) on the main West Coast Railway line.


Qhat has been the impact of migration in a UK city you have studied?

Multi-ethnic: Culture
Multi-faith: many religions represented
Migrants are hard-working ingeneral
The younger migrants balance an potentially ageing population
Pressure on the housing availability in the city
Migrants don't speak English initially - difficulties in school. Language is a barrier to integration in the city social aspects sometimes. Migrants tend to live together in clusters of one nationality.


How can urban change in the UK create social and economic opportunities?

Shopping - Trafford Centre (out of town) and the Arndale in the centre (pedestrianised areas)
Leisure and entertainment - eg theatres and museums. The Lowry Theatre, shopping centre and arts museum.
Sports venues for football and the Commonwealth Games; also cycling velodrome.
Salford Quays Regenreration project has created many social and economic opportunities eg Media City focuses on tertiary and quaternary industrial sectors. (eg the BBC has moved many key programmes to M'cr. Coronation Street filmed at Salford Quays)
Areas like this make use of the highly skilled/educated talent from the local universities. also attracts academics from abroad. Research and technology advances in a diverse range of employment.
Other economic opps: integrated transport - the Manchester Metrolinks trams with trains across Manchester.
Large corporations provide employment


How have environmetal changes created opportunities for a city you have studied in the UK?

Env changes:
Integrated transport encourages public transport andreduces air pollution
Brownfield sites have been redeveloped eg Slaford Quays where old warehousing has been converted to residential and other uses.
Parks have been created with cycleways to encorage health benefits


Explain the inequalities seen in UK cities

The population in HIC cities like Manchester often show inequalities. Compare Hulme (nr the centre) with Sale towards the south
Those living nearest/around the edges of the centre are often the poorest, least educated, have the lowest quality of life and the poorest health. People who live in these areas often live in terraced houses that were built to house workers in the local mills and factories.
As these shut down, workers lost their jobs and were often unable to move elsewhere.
Where adults have hiher educational success and more skilled work they earn more and are able to move to bigger houses in more affluent areas.
They own cars, are able to access better quality food and exercise as well as a wider range of health care.


Using an example you have studied assess the extent to which urban regeneration has been successful.



How can urban areas be made more sustainable?

Homes - large windows, energy efficient appliances (BEDZED) - carbon neutral development
Transport - cycle paths, public transport (eg BRT in Curitiba) (eg green exchange in Curitiba) (eg price of arena visit includes public transport journey)
Economic opportunities - homes near place of work
Waste - recycling facilities
Energy conservation - Solar/wind power. Freiburg global conference centre for sustainability eg solar power development
Water conservation - grey water recycling, collecting water
Creating green spaces - Curitiba green spaces act as flood managment areas; 40% of the city of Freiburg is forested, 44,000 trees planted but only native trees planted in 600 hectares of parks in Freiburg