Part 2 Flashcards Preview

AP Gov Final Part 1 > Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Part 2 Deck (101):
1

Logrolling

the exchanging of political favors

2

Majority Leader

partisan ally of the speaker

3

marginal district

the candidate receives less than 55% of the popular vote

4

Minority Leader

The principal leader of the minority party in the house

5

Open Rule

an order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor

6

Oversight

Congress's monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy

7

Party Polarization

a vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislatures

8

Reciprocity

the exchanging of favors between members of congress

9

Rider

an addition to a bill

10

Quorum

the minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress

11

Select Committee

Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose

12

Seniority System

a simple rule for picking committee chairs

13

Speaker of the House

Constitutionally mandated position. Appointed by the majority party in control of Congress

14

Standing Committee

permanent subject matter committees in both the house and the senate that handle bills in different policy areas

15

Ways and Means Committee

powerful standing committee in the house. Any bill that impacts revenue must pass through this house

16

Whips

work with congressional leaders to help facilitate voting and unity among the party

17

Bill

a potential law

18

Caucus

a group of member of Congress from both houses that share similar characteristics or interests

19

Christmas Tree Bill

a bill that has a lot of riders attached to it

20

Closed rule

an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor

21

Cloture

a rule used by the Senate to end a fiibuster

22

Committee Chairs

most important influences of the congressional agenda

23

Conference Committee

Congressional committee formed when the House and Senate pass different versions of the same bill to work out the language so that a single bill is formed

24

Conservative Coalition

an alliance between Republicans and conservative Democrats

25

Discharge petition

a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor

26

Filibuster

an attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking a bill to death

27

House Appropriations Committee

all bills must eventually pass through this committee to receive funding

28

House Rules Committee

sets rules for the bill

29

Joint Committee

Congressional committees on a few subject matter areas with membership drawn from both houses

30

Inbcumbent

someone who is already in office who is running for re-election

31

Casework

activities of Congress that helps constituents on an individual basis

32

Pork Barrel

the bringing of governmental projects to a particular district or state

33

Earmark

a modern term for pork barrel--the delineation of specific funds for specific purpose in a particular district or state

34

Apportionment

the process of dividing up the representatives with a state after the census

35

Census

a constitutional mandated procedure that takes place every 10 years that counts the people in the United States for the purpose of fixing Congressional Districts

36

Constituency

the people who the congressmen represents

37

District

the fixed boundary that a Congressman represents

38

Gerrymandering

the process of dividing up representatives by a state legislature to achieve a political advantage

39

Malapportionment

the process of dividing up representatives within a state that unconstitutionally favors one party over the other

40

Midterm election

an election that takes place half way through a president's term in office

41

Single member districts

the type of district that we have in the U.S. only one representative is elected from each district

42

Veto

the constitutional power of the president to reject a bill

43

Regulatory Agency

a government agency responsible for some part of the economy, making and enforcing rules supposedly to protect the public interest

44

Bi-Partisan support

an issue where both parties agree

45

Blanket Primary

voters are presented with a list of candidates from all the parties

46

Campaign

the activities associated with running for elected office

47

Candidate

person running for office

48

Civic Duty

the belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote

49

Closed Primary

only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates

50

Critical Elections

an election when the majority party is displaced by the minority party

51

Cross pressure

voters have conflicting thoughts on elections

52

Direct Election

people vote directly for the candidates and the person who receives the most votes wins

53

Direct Mail

a high-tech method of raising money for a political cause or candidate

54

Electorate

people who are registered and eligible to vote

55

Electioneering

direct group involvement in the election process

56

Electoral College

Constitutionally mandated manner in which we elect the president

57

Elite Power Politics

upper class will rule the aspects of government

58

Exit Polls

polls based on interviews conducted on election day with randomly selected voters

59

Federal Election Commission

a six-member bipartisan agency that administers and enforces campaign finance laws

60

Federal election campaign act

a law passed in 1974 that created the Federal election commission

61

Front Loading

the tendency to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention

62

Gender Gap

the difference between men and women on issues

63

General Election

an election held to choose which candidate will hold office

64

Grass Roots Campaign

a local political movement that originates from ordinary people outside of mainstream politics

65

Incumbency

person who is currently in office

66

Indirect election

representative elections

67

Linkage institution

the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda

68

Literacy test

tests given in the south to disenfranchise minority voters

69

Majority election

an election where the winner must receive more than 50% to win the election

70

Matching funds

contribution of up to $250 are matched from the Presidential Campaign Fund to candidates for president who agree to various conditions

71

Motor Voter Act

requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for a driver's license test

72

National Chairperson

person who is responsible for the day to day activities of the party

73

National Convention

the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform

74

National Committee

One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions

75

Nomination

the official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party

76

Open Primary

elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election day which party they want to vote for

77

Partisan

person who is firmly behind a particular party

78

Party Caucus

a meeting of all state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention

79

Party Dealignment

the gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties

80

Random Samples

method of selecting from a population win which each person has an equal probability of being selected

81

Rational Choice Theory

a theory that assumes that individuals always act in their own best interest

82

Sampling error

the level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll

83

Straight Ticket Voting

Voting for all of that parties candidates in an election

84

Soft Money

political contributions earmarked to the party and no one in particular. banned in 2002 McCain Feingold Act

85

Suffrage

the legal right to vote

86

Super delegates

national party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention

87

Swing votes

a voter who has no allegiance to any political party and whose unpredictable decisions can swing the outcome of an election one way or the other

88

Third Party

electoral contenders other than the two major parties

89

Ticket Splitting

voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices

90

Voter Profile

a mock up of a fictitious voter, useful for campaigning

91

Winner Takes All

an electoral system where whomever receives the most popular votes, receives all of that states electoral college votes

92

527

Independent groups that engage in influence on the election process

93

bully pulpit

President's use of his personality and media to increase his power

94

cabinet

group of presidential advisots

95

delegated powers

those powers that are given to a branch of government

96

divided government

one party controls one branch of government and another controls another branch

97

executive agreement

an agreement entered into by the president that doesn't need senatorial approval

98

lame duck period

the time when a person remains in office after he/she has lost the election

99

line item veto

the ability to veto only a part of a bill

100

OMB

prepares the president's budget

101

pocket veto

a veto taking place when Congress adjourns with 10 days of submitting a bill to president