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Flashcards in Part 2 Deck (141):
1

Fossil record

either:
1) interpretation of human evolution based on remains
2) the assemblage of bones collected

2

Potassium Argon Dating

200,000+ yrs

3

Radiocarbon Dating

< 50,000 yrs

4

Taphonomy

The study of what happens to human remains after death

5

Hypotheses for bipedalism

1) carrying model (food, children)
2) heat dissipation
3) greater endurance (energy)
4) increased height (vision, food, display)
5) walking in trees (like orangutans)

6

secondary altricialty

unique human growth-rate of brain (doubles in 1st year)

7

ecofact

organic material found (includes plants, animals)

8

Hearth

indication of a contained fire

9

Lithic scatters

Accumulation of waste flakes from stone tool manufacturing

10

Middens

Accumulations of trash

11

Faunal remains

animal remians

12

Palaeolithic

Old Stone Age

13

Lower Palaeolithic

Homo habilis, erectus
2.5M-500K yrs ago

14

Middle Palaeolithic

Sapiens, heidelbergensis, & Neandertals
500K-40K yrs ago

15

Upper Palaeolithic

Focused on Europe, replacement of Europe starting 40,000 -12K yrs ago

16

Coprolites

preserved human feces

17

Oldowan

Early stone tools associated with habilis (unifacial)

18

Feature

artifacts in specific pattern (non portable)

19

Pictographs & petroglyphs

Rock art

20

Pictographs & petroglyphs

Rock art

21

Acheulean

Tools associated with Homo erectus (bifacial)

22

Atlatl

Spear thrower

23

agriculture

large scale raising of domesticated plants and animals

24

Human evolution is not

linear

25

Total early human remains...

fit in a pickup bed

26

Best parts preserved

Teeth and mandible

27

Lumpers

argue there is so much variation -> few human genera

28

Splitter

argue there is little variation -> more human genera

29

Defining hominins

Bipedalism most widely accepted

30

First three hominins

1) Sahelanthropus
2) Orrorin
3) Ardipithecus

31

Sahelanthropus features

Small teeth
bipedalism
ape-like characteristics
small brain
u-shaped denture

32

Orrorin features

Bipedalism
large body
small teeth
thick enamel
large canines

33

Ardipithecus

bipedalism, small canines, opposable toes

34

Australopithecus native to

Africa

35

Likely ancestor of Homo

either Australopithecus or Kenyanthropus

36

Homo naledi

unkown species of human found in an African cave exhibiting a "mosaic" of skeletal features

37

Homo likely evolved through

punctuated equilibrium

38

Homo erectus appeared

1.8mya

39

Homo erectus features

Big brains
Tall

40

Homo erectus cultural devs:

fire, cooking, hunting

41

Neandertals evolved from

Homo heidelbergensis

42

Neandertals evolved __ ya

300k

43

Fact that humans could mate with neandertals indicate

maybe same species

44

Denisovans

lived 50,000 yrs ago along with neandertals and sapiens

45

"Hobbits"

Homo florensiensis

46

Homo florensiensis features

3 feet tall
small brain
lived 75k-12k ya
showed bigger wasnt always better

47

Neandertals discovered in

1856, Neander Germany

48

Last neander died

27,000 yrs ago

49

had equally good communication as humans

Neanderthals

50

Neanderthal genes live on in

European and Asian ancestry

51

Race is a

myth

52

Race concept introduced to

justify slavery

53

Feature

non -portable things

54

early homo became meat eaters __ ya

2.5m

55

Debates on transition to hunting

1) scavenge animals already killed
2) fire allowed cooking
3) chasing animals to exhaustion

56

Reconstructing diet

- use plant/animal remains
- isotopes in teeth
- coprolites
- residue on artifacts (blood)

57

Proposed idea that cooking is driving force of evolution

Richard Wrangham

58

Wrangham argues we learned to cook __ ya

1.8mya

59

Common social systems

25-30 people
fluid
exogamous
division of labor based on sex

60

Social stratification began

in upper paleolithic

61

Undisputed control of fire

40,000 yrs ago

62

Lomekwian

oldest found human tools

63

Example of acheulean

hand axe

64

Cave art showed

religious ideas, reverance for dead, burials

65

Venus figurines

sexual, gender, prehistoric barbie doll

66

Truth about caves

didn't make sense to live in caves (most people)

67

Cave men myths

weren't stupid and unkempt. women were as important as men

68

Birthplace of human culture

Africa

69

Paleoindian period

when people first hunted massive fauna

70

Archaic period

foraging adaptation in North America (9-5k ya)

71

Mesolithic period

middle stone age (12k-5k ya)

72

Mesolithic marked by

technological innovation

73

Neolithic period

10-5k ya (new stone age)

74

Neolithic marked by

shift to farming

75

Bronze and Iron ages

6-5k ya

76

Bronze and Iron ages marked by

discovery of smelting of metals

77

Beringia

ice-free land area connecting N.A to Asia

78

Coastal migration route

theory that people came down by walking along the coast

79

Ice-free corridor route

corridor formed between two large ice sheets allowing passage

80

Solutrean hypothesis

arrival from europe across atlantic

81

Population explosion in N.A due to

fluted point (kill large animals)

82

Gault Texas site significance

showed people had varied diet. didn't just depend on mammoth

83

Hinds Cave

has 2,000 coprolites spanning 8,000 yrs

84

When did humans become food producers

15k-12k ya

85

Pastoralism

domestication of animals

86

Horticulture:

domestication of plants

87

Carrying capacity

how many people a region can accomodate

88

Agriculture allowed for

permanent settlements

89

How to id susbistence in arch record

Pastoralists: diversity in plants, not animals
Horticulturalists: diversity in animals not plants

90

How to id domestication in arch record

size of edible plant is bigger
more young males, more old females

91

Arch definition of a city

5000 people

92

What led to changes in social, political systems

Carrying capacity

93

Had a "big man"

Pastoralists

94

Organized in tribes and chiefdoms

Horticulturalists

95

Organized as a state

Agriculturalists

96

Organized in bands

foragers

97

social stratification evidenced in record by

size of houses

98

civilization first emerged

5kya

99

First civ

Sumer (13 city states)

100

Mesopotamia

"land between rivers" (in Iraq)

101

First type of writing

cuneiform

102

Cuneiform

writing on clay tablets

103

Empire

one civilization dominating another

104

Civ in crete

Minoans

105

First civ in Asia

Indus valley civilization

106

First empire in China

Shang

107

Mesoamericas first civ

Olmecs

108

Maya dominated mesoamerica for

2000 yrs

109

Visibility in N.A

great

110

UNESCO stands for

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultuarl Organization

111

Contemporary archaeology

garbology, disaster archaeology

112

Explanations involving aliens or supernatural phenomena

Pseudoarchaeology

113

Relevance of Rift Valley Uplift

Uplift led to wetter climate, boom in types of apes

114

Lucy was a

Australopithecus afarensis

115

Donald Johanson

discovered lucy

116

Lucy was discovered in

Afar, Ethipoia

117

Lucy was bipedal (T/F)

T (shown by 3.6 my old footprints)

118

Australopithecus garhi

Probably descendant of Lucy
Had stone tools

119

Australopithecus africanus

Probably descendant of Lucy as well

120

Wrote History of the Creation

Ernst Haeckel

121

Proposed idea of human family tree & laid groundwork for "ecology"

Ernst Haeckel

122

Eugene Dubois

Reads Haeckel and goes to Asia in search of earliest human fossils. Finds Homo erectus

123

Piltdown Man showed that

large brains came BEFORE bipedalism

124

Raymond Dart find

Child skull in South Africa - Australopithecus africanus

125

Later, piltdown is proven

a fraud! (use fluorine dating)

126

Weidenreich

researcher finds homo erectus fossils in china, captured by Japanese during the war

127

Natufian

13k-11k ya culture in the Levant notable for sedentary population even before agriculture. ate cereals

128

Xia dynasty

1st dynasty

129

Shang dynasty

2nd dynasty (1st supported by archaeological evidence)

130

Mousterian

a style of flint tools associated with Neanderthals

131

Buttermilk Creek

Site in Texas. If confirmed, shows american settlement predating Clovis culture

132

Clovis culture

culture associated with clovis (fluted) point

133

Tenochtitlan

ancient city state in Mexico and capital of the Aztec empire (now the capital of Mexico)

134

Who discovered Copan?

Diego Garcia Palacio

135

Mayan communication with Gods

sacrifices, bloodletting, throwing prisoners into cenotes, and gold

136

Mayan link to the aztec?

Nahuatl

137

Occam's Razor

Among competing hypotheses, the one with less assumptions should be selected

138

Ethnographic Analogy

interpretation of archaeological remains by comparison to historical cultures

139

Indigenous archaeology

people involved in studying their own past

140

Ecological hypothesis of Mayan collapse

overuse of soil

141

Pothunter

looters of antiquities