Flashcards in Participative Democracy Deck (21)
What is participative democracy?
(a) A form of direct democracy
(b) A range of activities in which citizens engage in order to influence a government decision
How is participative democracy usually undertaken?
Through organisations rather than individuals
Why is participative democracy seen as positive?
(a) It is an advance control mechanism
(c) Decision making quality
What is the moss common form of public participation?
Is the government required legally to hold consultations?
There may sometimes be a legal requirement;
(a) Before making certain regulations
(b) Before making national planning framework
Why are consultations usually held, and, what may be consulted upon?
As a matter of good practice;
(a) Draft bills
(b) Green and white papers setting out policy proposals
(c) Many other proposals and policies
What are the benefits of consultations?
(a) gives a voice to stakeholders
(b) improves quality of decision making
(c) legitimacy and acceptance
(e) errors or gaps and areas of controversy
(f) Unforeseen issues
(g) Informs citezens
When should consulations not take place?
(a) During local/national elections
(b) Where a final view is already had on the issue
At what stage should consultations take place?
When policies or plans are at formative stage.
How long should consultations last?
(a) For a proportionate amount of time, should not be too quick, nor should they be too long.
(b) Government will usually publish response within 12 weeks of the consultation
What is the judicial approach to consultations?
(a) R v North and East Devon Health Authority, ex parte Coughlan ;
- Consultation should begin early when proposals are still at a formative stage
- Sufficient reasons should be given along with proposals to allow for intelligent response
- Adequate time should be given for consultation
- product of consultation should be conscientiously taken into account
KNOWN as the legitimate expectations
What did R(Greenpeace Ltd) v Secretary of State for trade and industry  establish?
(a) That a consultation document published by the Sec. of State was unlawful
(b) The document was inadequate as it failed to address citical issues
(c) Procedurally unfair - breached claimants legitimate expectation that a 'full public consultation' would be held
What are seen as the 'two revolutions' with regards to information?
(b) Freedom of Information
What did the 'technological revolution' bring about?
(a) technology and democratic participation
(b) digital citezenship
(c) Role of the media
(d) Regulatory issues
How is the media effective in holding the government to account?
(a) they are protected under article 10 of the ECHR which means they can express freely their views
(b) act as a watchdog for the people and report their findings
What problems are there with the media?
(a) Objectivity - they may be bias in their views and publish that bias
(b) Abuse of freedom as the leveson inquiry proved
What happened in Sugar v BBC 2009?
(a) Sugar appealed to the House of Lords on the grounds that the BBC should release report under the FOI Act 2000
(b) House of Lords granted appeal
What happened in BBC v Sugar 2010?
(a) High Court ruled in BBCs favour that the report was for journalistic issues and under the FOI 2000 did not have to be disclosed
What are qualified exemptions defined as under the FOI Act?
Whether public interest in maintain the exemption outweigh the public interest in its disclosure.
What are enforcement notices?
s.52 of the FOI Act are served by the Information Commissioner where there has been a breach of the Act by Public Authorities.