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Flashcards in Pass medicine question info Deck (46):
1

Carcinoid syndrome features

flushing (often earliest symptom)
diarrhoea
bronchospasm
hypotension
right heart valvular stenosis (left heart can be affected in bronchial carcinoid)
other molecules such as ACTH and GHRH may also be secreted resulting in, for example, Cushing's syndrome
pellagra can rarely develop as dietary tryptophan is diverted to serotonin by the tumour

2

calcium channel blocker SE

dyspepsia exacerbation

3

Grey Turner's sign can indicate what?

acute pancreatitis

--> bruising of the flanks

4

retroperitoneal organs

acronym: SADPUCKER

S = Suprarenal (adrenal) glands.
A = Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava.
D = Duodenum (second and third segments)
P = Pancreas.
U = Ureters.
C = Colon (ascending and descending only)
K = Kidneys.
E = Esophagus.

5

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can have what sign?

grey turners - bruising from last rib to top of hip

6

Atrophic gastritis - what is it? what does it lead to?

chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa
leading to loss of gastric glandular cells --> FIBROSIS

7

what is malabsoprbed in atrophic gastritis?

B12

8

What can atrophic gastritis lead to?

pernicious anaemia
fibrosis

9

how to diagnose atrophic gastritis?

biopsy

10

Familial adenomatous polyposis have what mutation?

APC gene

11

what does familial adenomatous polyposis testing show?

colonic adenomas

12

what organism causes necrotising fascitis?

Streptococcus

13

what can you hear with auscultating with necrotising fascitis?

crackles

14

what is urea breath test used for?

h pylori

15

what is Meckels diverticulum

- congenital
-diverticulum in SI

16

how to diagnose Meckels diverticulum

scan

17

barretts oesophagus cell changes

stratified squamous to simple columnar epithelium

18

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

autosomal dominant
hamartomatous polyps
pigmented freckles on the lips, face, palms and soles

19

what is a whipples procedure

remove the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the bile duct

20

mallory-weiss tear can come from what?

forceful vomiting

21

palmar erythema from what?

chronic liver disease

22

spider naive from what

liver disease
high estrogen

23

pyloric stenosis

2-6 weeks of age
projectile vomiting following feeds
remain hungry after vomiting
olive shaped mass in the right upper quadrant
peristalsis

24

infantile colic

paroxysms of crying - KEY
not so much vomitting

25

Cows milk protein intolerance

D then V

26

Galactosaemia

autosomal recessive metabolic conditions
failure to thrive
vomiting - not projectile

27

how to diagnose pyloric stenosis?

ultrasound

28

what does a ghon complex on x ray mean?

TB

29

common cause of diverticula disease

low fibre diet

30

gilberts

increased unconjugated
increased BR

31

fotb

faecal occult blood test -evereyone 60-74
then invited for colonoscop

32

GORD is associated with which cancer?

oesophageal adenocarcinoma

33

diverticulitis symptoms

diarrhoea
pain in left lian fossa

34

achlasia

dysphagia of BOTH liquids and solids
typically variation in severity of symptoms
heartburn
regurgitation of food - may lead to cough, aspiration pneumonia etc
malignant change in small number of patients

35

liver failure triad

encephalopathy, jaundice and coagulopathy

36

Wernicke's encephalopathy

common cause of confusion and encephalopathy in alcoholic liver disease patients and is due to a deficiency of thiamine.

37

pancretic cancer

painless jaundice

38

pharengeal pouch symptoms

dysphagia
regurgitation
aspiration
neck swelling which gurgles on palpation
halitosis

39

resp distress symptoms

dyspnoea
elevated respiratory rate
bilateral lung crackles
low oxygen saturations

40

what is pellagra

b3 deficiency
rash, diarrhoea, cognition impair
vegans

41

beriberi symptoms

Difficulty walking.
Loss of feeling (sensation) in hands and feet.
Loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs.
Mental confusion/speech difficulties.
Pain.
Strange eye movements (nystagmus)
Tingling.
Vomiting.

42

signs of wilsons

ementia, tremor or dyskinesias
with alt dearrangment levels
neuro and psychiatric symptoms

43

coeliacs signs

anemia
low feritin
fatty stools

44

what is painless jaundice

pancreatic cancer

45

gallstones mneumonic

fair: more prevalent in the Caucasian population 1
fat: BMI >30
female
fertile: one or more children
forty: age ≥40

46

pancreatitis symptoms

epigastric pain
radiates to back