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Flashcards in Pathology 2 Deck (23):
1

What is the treatment of Nephrotic syndrome?

- Fluid restircion max 1.5litres per day
- Salt restriction
- Diuretics – if gut swollen then IV furosemide
- ACEinhibitors/ ARBs – reduce proteinuria
- ? Anticoagulation
- IV Albumin (only if volume deplete) – Fluid but in wrong place to reduce chance of AKI

2

What is the treatment of nephritic syndrome?

Immunosuppression
Aim is to induce sustained remission

3

What defines partial and complete remission in nephritic syndrome?

Complete remission (proteinuria <3g/day)

4

What are ACE inhibitors absolutely contraindicated in?

Bilateral renal artery stenosis

5

What is stress incontinence?`

Involuntary leakage on effort or exertion or on sneezing or coughing.

6

What is urge incontinence?

Involuntary elakage accompanied by r immediately preceeded by urgency

7

What is urgency?

The complaint of a sudden compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer.

8

What is the main cause of urge incontinence?

Idiopathic detrouser over activity - incontinence due to involuntary detrusor contraction

9

In urge incontinence what dietary advice should be given?

Avoid caffeine

10

What causes overflow incontinence? How does the patient present?

Bladder outlfow obstruction
Painful urinary retention

11

Physiotherapy to do what can be useful in urge incontinence?

Pelvic floor strengthening

12

What are some risk factor for urge incontinence?

Obesity
DM
Chronic cough
Smoking

13

Define mixed urinary incontinence.

Involuntary leakage associated with urgency and also with exertion-effort, sneezing or coughing.

14

What are the 3 benign renal tumours?

Fibroma
Adenoma
Angiomyolipoma

15

What is a Fibroma renal tumour?

Common
Maxillary origin
Small white nodules

16

Describe a renal Adenoma?

Yellowish nodules <2cm
Cortical
Renal tubular epithelium origin

17

What is in an angiomyolipoma? What are they associated with?

Smooth muscle
Fat
Blood vessels
Can be multiple and bilateral
Associated with tuberous sclerosis

18

What is a JGCT?

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour
Tumour of renin producing cells leading to increased renin production and secondary hypertension

19

Where does a neuroblastoma (Wilms tumour) arise from?

Residual primitive renal tissue

20

What is the most common malignancy of the renal tract?

Transitional cell carcinoma

21

What are the risk factors for TCC?

Smoking
Aniline dyes
Rubber exposure
Bernadine
Cyclophosphamide

22

What is the most common symptom of TCC?

Haematuria

23

Chronic infection of Schistosomiasis predisposed a patient to what cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder