Flashcards in Pathology 2 Deck (23):
What is the treatment of Nephrotic syndrome?
- Fluid restircion max 1.5litres per day
- Salt restriction
- Diuretics – if gut swollen then IV furosemide
- ACEinhibitors/ ARBs – reduce proteinuria
- ? Anticoagulation
- IV Albumin (only if volume deplete) – Fluid but in wrong place to reduce chance of AKI
What is the treatment of nephritic syndrome?
Aim is to induce sustained remission
What defines partial and complete remission in nephritic syndrome?
Complete remission (proteinuria <3g/day)
What are ACE inhibitors absolutely contraindicated in?
Bilateral renal artery stenosis
What is stress incontinence?`
Involuntary leakage on effort or exertion or on sneezing or coughing.
What is urge incontinence?
Involuntary elakage accompanied by r immediately preceeded by urgency
What is urgency?
The complaint of a sudden compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer.
What is the main cause of urge incontinence?
Idiopathic detrouser over activity - incontinence due to involuntary detrusor contraction
In urge incontinence what dietary advice should be given?
What causes overflow incontinence? How does the patient present?
Bladder outlfow obstruction
Painful urinary retention
Physiotherapy to do what can be useful in urge incontinence?
Pelvic floor strengthening
What are some risk factor for urge incontinence?
Define mixed urinary incontinence.
Involuntary leakage associated with urgency and also with exertion-effort, sneezing or coughing.
What are the 3 benign renal tumours?
What is a Fibroma renal tumour?
Small white nodules
Describe a renal Adenoma?
Yellowish nodules <2cm
Renal tubular epithelium origin
What is in an angiomyolipoma? What are they associated with?
Can be multiple and bilateral
Associated with tuberous sclerosis
What is a JGCT?
Juxtaglomerular cell tumour
Tumour of renin producing cells leading to increased renin production and secondary hypertension
Where does a neuroblastoma (Wilms tumour) arise from?
Residual primitive renal tissue
What is the most common malignancy of the renal tract?
Transitional cell carcinoma
What are the risk factors for TCC?
What is the most common symptom of TCC?