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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (26):
1

What grade meningioma are rhabdoid / papillary subtypes?

Anaplastic

2

What grade is a clear cell and chordoid meningoma?

Grade 2

3

What is EMA?

Epithelial membrane antigen - positive with meningiomas

4

What grade is a haemangiopericytoma?

Grade 2 aka solitary fibrous tumour

5

What is synaptophysin?

An immunostain for a neuronal lineage

6

What are the histological features of a central neurocytoma?

Similar features to an oligodendroglioma byt synaptophysin postive and 1p19q negative; If neurofilament positive then ganglioneurocytoma.

7

What immune markers are found with germinomas?

PLAP and c-Kit

8

What rosettes are found with pineocytomas?

Pineocytomatous rosettes

9

What are the histological features of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma?

MIcroscopic and macroscopic cysts, cholesterol rich, can be adhesed to brain tissue and have Rosenthal fibres

10

What is the origin of craniopharyngioma?

Remnant of Rathke's pouch

11

What age group do adamantinomatous craniopharygiomas arise?

Children (papillary are in adults)

12

What mutation occurs with adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas?

CTNNB1 which encodes beta-catenin in the Wnt pathway;
(BRAF mutation occurs in 95% of papillary craniopharyngiomas)

13

What mutation is found with pilocytic astrocytoma?

BRAF fusion gene

14

What mutation is found with low grade astrocytoma?

ATRX and TP53

15

What mutation is found with low grade oligodendroglioma?

1p19q

16

What is the role of IDH-1?

Normal IDH-1 converts isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate; The mutated form makes 2-hydroxyglutarate which causes tumour formation;

17

How can a low grade glioma be distinguished from an ependymoma?

IDH-1 mutation

18

What is the prognostic significance of IDH-1?

If mutated carries a better prognosis

19

What mutation is characteristic of a diffuse astrocytoma?

ATRX mutation

20

What is ATRX?

This is a chromatin regulator and missense mutations are found in 70% of Gd2&3 astrocytomas.

21

What type of tumour has a FUBP1/CIC mutation?

Oligodendroglioma

22

What is CIMP?

CpG island promoter methylation and is associated with tumour subgroups that has impact on prognosis. CIMP is found with oligodendroglioms.

23

A GBM with reticulin and vimentin positive. What is the diagnosis?

Gliosarcoma

24

What is a SNUC?

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

25

What are the patterns of metastatic spread?

1) Intracerebral; 2) Leptomeningeal and 3) Epidural mass

26

What is the difference between grade 2 and 3 meningioma?

Grade 2 have 4-20 mitoses per 10 high power fields; Grade 3 have >20 high power fields