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Flashcards in Pathophysiology of asthma Deck (18):
1

What type of disease is asthma?

Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory and obstructive disease of the airways

2

Steps involved from inflammation to airways dysfunction in asthma

-Allergen inhalation, exercise
-Immune system response
-Airway inflammation
-Impaired airway function
-Symptoms:
-Wheeze
-Cough
-Dyspnoea

3

Who are more likely to develop asthma?(Genetics)

Parental asthma
Susceptibility genes(ADAM33)

4

Who are less likely to develop asthma?(Genetics)

No parental asthma
Protective genes(GSPT1+)

5

Who are more likely to develop asthma?(Immunological development)

Infant respiratory virus infection
Modern hygiene
Caesarean delivery

6

Who are less likely to develop asthma?(Immunological development)

Helminth exposure
Healthy microbiota
Vaginal delivery
Older siblings

7

Who are more likely to develop asthma?(Lifestyle)

-Urban dwelling
-Pollution
-Poor diet
-Obesity

8

Who are less likely to develop asthma?(Lifestyle)

-Rural dwelling
-Lower pollution environment
-Healthy diet

9

What do allergic responses require?

Allergic responses require prior exposure and sensitization

10

Steps involves in allergen sensitization

-Allergen exposure
-Allergen encountered and processed by adaptive immune system
-Antibodies generated, immune system primed

11

What does allergen sensitization lead to and what are the steps involved in that?

-Leads to an allergic response
-Steps involved:
-Subsequent allergen response
-Allergen binds antibodies(Immune cell activation and inflammatory response)
-Leads to symptoms

12

What does sensitization involve?

Sensitization involves presentation of antigen to T cells and B cell-Ab production

13

What is the asthmatic immune response triggered by?

-Triggered by allergen-induced degranulation and airway inflammation

14

What are the steps involved in an asthmatic response?

-Allergen inhaled, enters airway tissue
-Allergen binds and cross-links IgE Abs on mast cells, inducing degranulation
-Eosinophils and Th2 cells are both recruited
-Recruitment of eosinophil to airways release further mediators and ROS
-Degranulation and recruitment of eosinophils lead to the contraction of smooth muscles, excess muscle secretion and oedema

15

What can an asthmatic response to an allergen have?

Can have early and late phases

16

What do pharmacological treatments impact?

Impact asthma pathophysiology in different ways

17

Pharmacological treatments and there effects

Refer to slide

18

What type of condition is asthma?

Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous condition with multiple endotypes