Flashcards in Patrol Procedures Deck (94):
What are the objectives of patrol (5)
To preserve the peace by mere presence and by proper action
To prevent crime by opportunity reduction: duty to prevent
To suppress crime by timely response to crimes in progress and by properly investigating offenses
To apprehend susupects
to regulate non-criminal conduct bu obtaining and maintaining good Ofc-citizen relationships to protect life and property
What is protection*
Prevention of crime is the soundest of all criminologist theories
What is service in importance of patrol
To the community of which each peace Ofc is a part
What are the 2 elements of shift meeting
Related circumstances (warrants, stolen property/vehs, hazardous situations, special events)
What are the elements of beat characteristics the Ofc should know early on in shift
Area, socio-economic and geographic characteristic
Crimes in the area
Knowledge of the beat (streets and blocks)
It increases probability of on-cite arrest and Ofc safety
What do you check for equipment readiness
Veh, weapons, radio, fire and first-aid gear, ect.
Report or replace what is needed
What is cover
Being hidden and protected by the barrier (brick wall, veh engine, ect)
What is concealment
Being hidden but NOT protected (shrubs, bushes)
What makes a safe foot approach
Awareness of cover/concealment
What makes a safe veh approach
Positioning of vehicle, lighting, ect
Define silhouetting and the 6 reasons why you don't do it
Placing yourself, others or your patrol unit in a position so as to provide the suspect(s)
with a definite identifiable target.
• Provides suspect(s) with knowledge of how many officers are present, fire power, and
• Allows suspect(s) to plan course of action.
• Attempt to select location for vehicle stop.
• Back-up units secure headlights, reds and ambers upon approach of primary unit.
• Hold flashlight well in front and away from body. Do not point toward other officers.
• Do not stand in doorways and hallways or peer openly through broken or otherwise open
What are 6 telltale noises
• Vehicle, engine
• Parking unit too close to scene
• Radio volume too loud
• Seat belts/pop the buckle
• Letting unit door slam shut
• Equipment, i.e. radio, keys, whistles, baton, handcuffs, portable radio
What do you do about suspects hands
• Demand suspect place hands in front of him/her and turn palms up.
• Do not allow subject to put hands in pockets.
• Possibly hiding contraband (evidence) in pockets, weapon, and/or identifiable marks,
scars, or tattoos.
• If hands are already in pockets, do not allow removal.
• Situational discretion needed - suspect to turn head away and/or kneel or lay on ground
before checking for weapon.
What type of hazards do you report
• Roadway hazards, dead animals, animals on roadway, traffic control devices, crime
• Contact appropriate authorities, depending upon the type of hazard, as soon as possible.
What are the 2 types of problem area patrols
1. Preventive patrol -
Preventive enforcement: conduct property checks, question suspicious persons, vary patrol patterns and predictability and maintain high visibility. Selective patrol: deals with specific problems or violations, so be aware of the problem,
the location, and the time of day that the problems usually occur.
2. Apprehension patrol:
• Low visibility and surveillance
What are the 6 different patrol modes and advantages
1 Bike: can get places where car can't
2 Motorcycle: quick response, traffic/escorts
3 Foot: good community relation/interaction, know beat
4 Automobile: speed, mobility, protection for ofc
5 Fixed wing and helicopter: cover large areas from sky
6 Mounted: person-to-person contact, good community relations, good for crowds
What are the advantages of one-Ofc patrol? (5)
• Having twice as many patrol vehicles on the street doubles preventive enforcement.
• When the officer is alone, more attention is devoted to patrol functions and duties.
• An officer alone develops self-reliance, rather than depending on a partner for backup.
• A lone officer in a patrol vehicle takes fewer chances.
• Personality clashes are reduced
What are the advantages of riding 2-man (5)
• Greater safety factor.
• Can be used as a training aid for the correction of officer mistakes.
• Share driving duties.
• Two pairs of eyes are better than one.
• One officer can operate the radio while the other drives.
What is the def of skilled observer
one who is able to take in everything around a given situation and then sort out
the relevant from the irrelevant.
what are the 6 observation skills
• See everything there is to see and take it in quickly and accurately
• Look for clues in situations
• Learn own beat area
• Be aware of everything around you constantly
• Draw conclusions about what you see
• Catalog what you see for possible future use also
Proper ped stop is when a ped is doing what 4 things
• Carrying something suspicious
• Acting strangely
• Staying in the same place
• Stopping other people on the street.
Where is the proper place to do a ped stop (5)
• Note escape routes
• Gauge number of people that could be hurt
• Place where least number of hostages possible
• Gauge officer safety
• Report location to dispatcher.
How do you perform a ped stop (2)
• Use effective verbal communications
• Approach carefully: maintain visual contact with suspicious person, approach on right
side since most people are right-handed, watch for furtive movements or attempts to flee,
establish early eye contact, and be aware of surroundings.
what are the 3 case laws dealing with ped stops
• Michigan v Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567, 108 S. Ct. 1975 (1988)
• California v Hodari, D., 111 S. Ct. 1547 (1991)
• Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S.1 (1968)
What are the 4 techniques to do when 1 Ofc interviews 1 suspect
• Field interview position recommends the officer to place gun side away and stand
approximately one arm's length or more from the person. Depending upon the situation
and the size and disposition of the person, the officer may want to use discretion in
• The "gun hand" should remain free when practical
• Maintain overall observation of the person
• Be aware of surroundings
What are the 4 techniques to do when 1 Ofc interviews 2+ suspects
• Assume the recommended field interview position and speak to the person to be
• Stand in a safe position where persons can be restrained if necessary
• Maintain overall observation of persons
• Move as necessary to prevent persons from closing in or surrounding officer
What are the 3 techniques to do when 2 Ofc interviews 1 suspects
• The officer initiating the contact should exercise all the precautions noted above
• The second officer should take position to the right or left rear of the person being
interviewed (avoid cross-fire situation)
• One officer should take lead in gathering information.
What are the 2 techniques to do when 2 Ofc interviews 2+ suspects
• The officer initiating the contact should proceed as previously described
• The second officer assumes a position, which allows maximum visibility of the persons,
avoid lengthy conversations, which would detract from safety awareness, and
communicate any observations of threat or hazard to the primary officer
field inquiry is used to learn what about people (4)
• Subject's reaction to inquiry.
• How people react to questioning by police.
• Personal contact with citizens opens relationships for future information.
• Puts officer on one-to-one basis with public.
What vital info should Ofc know (4)
The people in the area personally know the officer.
• The officer learns the socio-economic make-up of the people in the area.
• The officer learns where people work and becomes aware of who the store clerks are,
what time they travel to and from work, and what types of vehicle they drive.
• People observe and know many things and will tell a good officer who has developed
proper rapport through field inquiry.
what type of things should Ofc look out for in beat (9)
• Houses, buildings and stores have specific observable characteristics.
• A light on in a building, where none has been before.
• No attendant at cash register in convenience store.
• An open or broken window of closed business or home.
• Suspicious persons in alley or other area where no one usually goes.
• Broken or missing lock on gate.
• A light out over a rear or side entrance to a closed building.
• Vehicles parked in alley or area where none is usually parked.
• Tire tracks across lawn to back of building.
What are the 7 steps in violator contact
1. Greeting and ID agency
2. Statement of violation committed
3. ID the driver and chk veh and violator
4. Statement of action to be taken
5. Take that action
6. Explain what the violator must do
Review high-risk stops in book
What are the safe response procedures for in-progress calls (6)
• Never a “routine” call
• Safety in approach: driving/vehicle operation policies, watching for fleeing suspects.
• Danger cues: observe layout of situation, observe suspects, awareness of suspect v.
• Adhere to department policy - communicate with dispatcher.
• Communicate and cooperate with other officers - radio, verbal signals, and hand signals.
• Department policy - waiting for back up.
What's the procedures for building search
• Notify dispatch
• Request backup
• Secure point of entry
• Secure other exits
• Request dispatcher to notify property owner to advise location of office, safe, cash
• Leave enough officers outside to secure perimeter
• At least two officers should enter the building to make search.
• Search should be based on all knowledge available.
• Backup team covers search team as they enter the building and then guards the place of
entry/exits providing any help possible
• Members of search team should be aware of other members and their location
• Search the premises using the "leap frog" techniques (one officer covering the other as
they move from place to place)
• The team should stay together and search each room thoroughly before moving to the
next room. Each room searched should be secured or under observation if possible
• In most cases, the team should leave the suspect(s) an opportunity to leave the building -
a trapped intruder may start shooting
what are the safety procedures during a bomb threat (3)
• Determine make up and population of area threatened.
• Determine if evacuation is necessary.
• Secure area, control entry of unauthorized persons.
what are the proper techniques during a bomb threat
• What are possible types of device-size, makeup, mechanical, electrical-may be obtained
from initial report? What to look for
• Identify common types of bombs or suspicious objects that could be bombs.
• Solicit information from individuals that would be familiar with the area and what would
be out of the ordinary/suspicious.
• Search for bomb using proper techniques-turn all radios off within 500 feet of search
area, do not touch anything that looks suspicious.
• If a device or suspicious object is found evacuate the immediate area and call specialized
assistance. Do not move the device!
What is the def of an active shooter
One or more persons who participate in a random or systematic shooting or stabbing spree, demonstrating their intent to continuously harm others.
What is the def of immediate action
A plan for the immediate deployment of law enforcement personnel confronted with a homicide in progress situation, where a delayed response
may result in death or serious bodily injury to innocent persons
what does HIPS stand for and what does it involve
Homicide in Progress School
A plan for the immediate deployment of law enforcement personnel confronted with a homicide in progress situation, where a delayed response
may result in death or serious bodily injury to innocent persons
What are the differences from active shooter and mass murder (5)
• The active shooter lacks a desire to conceal his crime spree or intent to escape
• The active shooter may very well be using this form of mass murder to gain final
notoriety and go out with a bang
• The active shooter positions himself with access to potential victims, such as a school,
office building, or restaurant
• Injured victims are present and requiring immediate medical attention
• An immediate intervention by police is required to save lives
What are the 3 priorities during active shooter
• Stopping the action of the suspect by using deadly force or isolating the suspect from
• Rescuing victims the suspect has wounded or may have access to
• Apprehending the suspect
What are the advantages PD has during active (3)
• The ability to rapidly deploy officers to confront then neutralize the suspect
• To quickly contain and isolate the suspect from other potential victims
• To move in and rescue the wounded or evacuate potential victims.
What are the disadvantages during active shooter (5)
• Arriving officers receive minimum information regarding the suspect’s description,
actions, weapons or the environment where the situation is occurring
• Specialized weapons and ballistic protection may have to be left behind or may not even
be at the scene
• Heavy radio traffic may interfere with communication
• There is minimal time for planning prior to immediate action
• If homicides have already occurred or people have been critically wounded, one is more
than likely confronting a no win situation
What are the 6 critical things to consider when homicide in progress
• Is a homicide in progress actually occurring?
• Can the suspect be located?
• If the suspect is located, can he be positively identified?
• How many suspects are involved?
• What type of floor plan or environment is involved?
• When wounded persons or others attempting to flee and hide from the suspect are
encountered how will they be handled?
What are the 3 questions to help make decisions in active shooter
• Can you get to the suspect quickly and stop him?
• Are there other potential victims in the building?
• Are there other officers moving up in immediate action formations ahead of you or
What should you expect when encountering a homicide in progress
A homicide in progress call will quickly overwhelm the individual and the resources of the
police, EMS and fire department no matter the size of the agency or city. When responding to an
incident one can expect to encounter significant things relating to the situation, oneself and the
What are the types of situations Ofc comes across during homicide in progress (8)
• Multiple victims with varying degrees of injuries
• Numerous people throughout the danger area and the inner perimeter
• Potential victims fleeing and hiding
• Hysteria when encountering people
• Significant auditory and visual impairment, such as screaming, radio blaring, explosions,
alarms, poor lighting, etc
• Gunfire, possibly from multiple locations
• Sprinkler systems activated
• Improvised explosive devises
What are things an Ofc will deal with during active shooter (8)
• Shaking, sweaty hands
• Increased rate of breathing or holding one’s breath
• Dry mouth
• Loss of peripheral vision
• Reduced auditory ability
• Loss of fine motor skills
• Intense physical and mental duress
What are 4 things Ofc will deal with in the aftermath
• Self doubt about one’s action
• Grief, anguish, and anger by the survivors and relatives of the victims
• A relentless media in pursuit of blame and sensationalized stories
• Monday morning quarterbacking by many “tactical experts”
what's the def of contact team
A proactive search team dedicated to locating and eliminating the deadly
conduct that is occurring
What is the mission of the contact team (5)
o Stop the deadly behavior
o Limit the suspects movement
o Prevent an escape
o Continue past victims
o At the first opportunity provide intelligence to other teams (i.e. intelligence on
victims, explosives, suspects, weapons, etc)
What is the def of rescue team
A slow moving and methodical team whose mission is to search for and
recover downed citizens or officers
What is the mission of the rescue team (5)
o Enter and/or approach location to locate victims
o Report suspect’s location if possible
o Extract victims to safe area
o Notify medical personnel if necessary
o To gather intelligence on other hazards
What is the job of the point man
• Team leader/lead cover man
• Covers unknown threats while team enters a room to search
• Acts as a rear guard during the egress
what is the job of "left flank" or contact/rescue man 1
• Maintains radio contact or communications with other officers
• Makes room entries
• Searches for victims
• Physically carries victims out on rescue
• Covers unknown threats on left flank
what is the job of "right flank" or contact/rescue man 2
• Makes room entries
• Searches for victims
• Physically carries out victims
• Covers unknown threats on right flank
What is the job of the rear guard
• Provides rear security for the team
• Acts as point man on the team’s egress
what is the def of crowd management
When conditions or circumstances warrant a high level of awareness, departments should gather
information and provide advanced warning for civil unrest
What are some resources for gathering intelligence in crowd management
• Civic leaders and organization
• Citizen and church groups
• Street rumors
• Arrestees, utilize information from all known offenders with criminal history in civil
unrest, not just those known to patrol
What are 3 factors to be considered when organizing for crowd management
• Court verdicts
• Union strikes
• Police shootings or incidents in a tense community
what should first Ofc on scene do in crowd control consider
officer safety first, the protection of life
and property, request for any assistance from other officers or agencies and EMS/AFD if needed
what type of info do you give dispatch during crowding
• Activity of the crowd (hostile or passive)
• Size of the crowd
• Weapons or objects known
• Safest route for other officers to get to the scene
• Most practical location for a command post and parking
what are the key objectives in crowd control
• Disperse crowds
• Arrest violators
what is the def of crowd
a large number of persons temporarily congregated. Generally, the members of a
crowd think and act as individuals and are without organization
what are the 4 types of crowd classifications
Desc casual crowd
Has no unity of purpose and no leadership, i.e.. shoppers, on-lookers, or
watchers who come and go, and will usually respond to direction by police
Desc cohesive crowd
Usually assembles for a common purpose without leadership, i.e.
spectators at sporting events, along parade routes, and other activities. They have a
common interest but behave and think as individuals.
Desc expressive crowd
Are assembled for some purpose. They have leadership and the
intention of expressing an attitude for or against some person or idea, i.e., political rallies
and picket lines.
Desc aggressive crowd
Is usually assembled for some purpose. They have positive
leadership, are determined to accomplish a specific end, and move actively toward their
objective. Usually high emotional tension is present. This type crowd can easily become
a mob. Consequently, this type of crowd presents an acute police problem.
What is the def of mob
crowd develops into a mob when all or most members of the crowd have been instilled with a
purpose and intent to carry out their purpose, regardless of the consequences
What are the 3 classifications of mob & desc them
• Aggressive Mob: An aggressive mob riots and terrorizes as in the case of race riots,
lynching, political riots, or prison riots.
• Escape Mob: A mob in a state of panic. In their attempt to secure safety by flight,
members of an escape mob may have lost their power of reasoning.
• Acquisitive Mob: A mob motivated by a desire to acquire something, i.e., food riots.
What are the goals of public service (4)
• To provide protection and service.
• To minimize cultural/emotional barriers separating peace officers and the public.
• To create an officer/citizen relationship that supports the best interests of society.
• To create empathetic response to citizen concerns/needs.
What are the negative consequences of ineffective public service
o Lack of trust and respect
o Reduced budgetary support for needed personnel, equipment, programs, etc.
o Increased citizen complaints
What are the positive consequences of effective public service
o Increased trust and respect, resulting in improved dialogue and general sense of
o Support for budgetary requests
o Reduction in citizen complaints
what are the 3 ways to show visual presence
Name 5 ways of community involvement on-duty
• Public speaking and participation at civic gatherings
• Civic groups
• Professional groups
• Other service-oriented agencies (YMCA/YWCA, Big Brother/Big Sister, Human
How can you seek citizen input formally & informally (2 of each(
o Stop and talk
o Foot patrol conversations
o Prepared questions when addressing various civic groups, clubs, etc.
What are the overviews of policing, it's needs/problems (5)
• Crime trends
• Police procedures
• Legal issues
List 8 emergency community resources
• Request assistance arising from emergency cases: ambulance for injured, fire
department, patrol transportation
• Salvation Army
• Battered spouses/children
• Rape Crisis
• United Way
• Animal control officials
• City services
• Medical examiner (ME) & Justice of the Peace
Def of crime prevention
A proactive anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime
risk and the action needed to remove or reduce that risk.
what's the crime prevention role within LE (3)
• An officer's primary responsibility is that of crime prevention. Every law enforcement
officer is a crime prevention officer by the technical definition as well as the moral
responsibilities of the job.
• The crime prevention officer must assess the crime problems in his particular area of
responsibility and devise ways to prevent their further development.
• Investigation and arrest after the occurrence of a crime may help to prevent further crimes
by that individual, but the procedure is reactive rather than proactive.
What are 3 elements to role of opportunity reduction
• In order to prevent the occurrence of crime, the opportunity for someone to commit the
crime must be eliminated or reduced
• Before opportunity can be reduced, a proper assessment must be made of the crime target
• Opportunity for different crimes may be reduced in different ways, such as citizen
awareness and involvement, physical security (locks, lights, alarms, specific action for
specific preventable crimes)
What do you do when assessing a crime problem
• Gather information on crime trends in areas of responsibility using all possible resources
such as, investigation bureau, crime prevention unit, investigative supplemental
information sheets, crime analysis, discussion with officers from adjoining beats,
• Interpret the information gathered to determine in what areas focus is needed, such as
high crime risk areas, most prominent types of crime, victims characteristics, times when
the crimes are occurring
What are 3 methods of opportunity reduction in crime prevention
• From a citizen awareness point of view, prevention of specific crimes requires specific
• It is the function of the patrol officer to spot opportunities and take steps to correct them
by working with the citizens.
• The patrol officer should be aware of crime prevention practices for the most common
Crime prevention elements for security surveys-resd/commercial building
Fill out form/report, including who has keys to house and vehicles; makes, models and
license numbers of vehicles; lights left on; animals
• Check exteriors - doors, windows, locks, and alarms
• Check perimeter - landscaping, lighting, fences, and walls
• Check interior - operation ID, security habits
Crime prevention elements for neighborhood watch/resd security
• Neighbors getting to know each other and working together with local law enforcement
in a program of mutual assistance
• Residents being trained to recognize and report suspicious activities in their
• Implementation of crime prevention techniques such as home security, operation ID, etc.
What are business crime prevention crimes that can be avoided
• Burglary/business watch
• Fraudulent checks, credit cards
• Shoplifting, internal theft
What are some personal safety crimes that can be prevented
• Assault, robbery, purse snatch, pickpocket, fraud
• Sexual assault prevention, self-defense
What are some youth crime prevention
• School resource officer program (youth-law enforcement relations)
• Junior crime prevention officer (youth trained in residential security)
• Operation stay-in-school (truancy/burglary reduction)
• Child safety/sexual assault prevention
What are some domestic violence/child abuse preventions
• Conflict resolution
• Parenting classes
• Community responsibility/reporting
• Crisis intervention and referral
What are the basic rules of consular notification
• A foreign detainee must be informed of his right to have his consulate notified
• Arrestees decision should be documented
• Applies to all foreign detainees, whether in the country illegally or not
VVCR ARTICLE 36
What are the mandatory rules for consular notification
• Certain consulates MUST be notified regardless of the wishes of the detainee
• Refer to Consular Notification and Access handbook and Consular Notification and
Access reference card