Patterns of Inheritance Flashcards Preview

Biology - Unit 4 > Patterns of Inheritance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patterns of Inheritance Deck (21):
0

What are alleles?

Alternate forms of a genes which may code for slightly different proteins

1

Genotype is determined by different...

allele combinations

2

Phenotype is determined by...

... genotype and environmental factors

3

Two of the same allele...

...homozygous

4

Two different alleles...

...heterozygous

5

What are the indicators for autosomal dominant?

Both males and females can be affected
In large samples, equal numbers of males and females affected
All affected individuals have at least one affected parent
Once the trait disappears from a branch of the pedigree it does not reappear
A heterozygote will show the trait

6

What are the indicators for autosomal recessive?

Both males and females can be affected
Two unaffected parents can have an affected child
The trait may skip generations
The trait is only expressed on the homozygous state

7

What the indicators for X-linked dominant?

Both males and females can be affected
All affected individuals have at least one affected parent
Once the trait disappears from a branch of the pedigree it does not reappear
A male with the trait passes it onto all his daughters and none of his sons
In large samples, more females are affected

8

What are the patterns for X-linked recessive?

Both males and females can be affected
A female with the trait passes it onto all her sons
The daughters of a male with the trait will all be carriers (heterozygotes)
In large samples, more males are affected

9

The sex chromosome on a male is...

...hemizygous

10

When do you use a mono hybrid cross?

When alleles of only one gene are involved

11

What is Mendelian inheritance?

Single gene traits that consist of dominant and recessive alleles with only two possible genotypes i.e dominant, recessive

12

What is non-Mendelian inheritance?

single or multi-gene traits that include multiple alleles which result in a continuous variation of phenotypes

13

What is co-dominance?

Phenotype of heterozygous offspring which is a combination of the phenotypes of the homozygous parents. i.e both phenotypes are expressed

14

What is incomplete dominance?

Phenotype of heterozygous offspring is a blend of the phenotypes of the homozygous parents

15

What are multiple alleles?

Many genes that have multiple alleles

16

In terms of blood group only, what antigens to the following produce:
Ia Ia
Ib Ib
Ia i
Ib I
Ia Ib
ii

Ia Ia = A antigens
Ib Ib = B antigens
Ia i = A antigens
Ib I = B antigens
Ia Ib = A and B antigens
ii = no antigens

17

In terms of blood group only, what antibodies do the following produce:
Ia Ia
Ib Ib
Ia i
Ib I
Ia Ib
ii

Ia Ia = B antibodies
Ib Ib= A antibodies
Ia i= B antibodies
Ib I= A antibodies
Ia Ib= no antibodies
ii= A and B antibodies

18

What is the Rhesus factor?

Rhesus factor is a Mendelian trait and is either (+) there or (-) not there.

19

What is a Test cross?

A cross between a known homozygous recessive individual and an individual with the dominant phenotype but unknown genotype

20

What is a dihybrid cross?

A cross where alleles of two genes are involved