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Flashcards in PCM Deck (58):
1

name the deficiency: required for synthesis of opsin and conversion of retinol to retinal; deficiency will compromise visual cycle; may resuult in corneal edema conjunctivitis and xerosis

zinc deficiency

2

name the def: contributes to age-related macular degeneration, leading cause of registered blndess in western pop. _______ lower in smokers. ___________ can't be synth. by body, dietary intake in green leafy vegetables, orange/yellow fruits and veggies and in breast milk

lutein deficiency

3

name the 3 vitamins required for glutathione

niacin, riboflavin and vitamin C

4

cataracts are more common in what populations?

low income groups
smokers
those exposed to direct sunlight

5

________ important for the integrity of conjunctiva; deficiency results in blockage of sebaceous glands of the eyelids

riboflavin

6

_______ deficiency causes deficiency of the EOMS?

thiamine

7

__________ deficiency causes demyelination of optic nerve (seen in heavy smokers and drinkers, and in tapeworm)

vitamin B12 deficiency

8

disease that has cholesterol deposits within the cornea

familial hypercholesterolemia

9

most rapid period of brain growth occurs from mid gestation at 20 wks to __________ months after birth

18 months

10

the transporter that moves glucose across the BBB is not responsive to what?

insulin

11

__________ ingestion reduces glucose transport into the brain, which contributes to the depressive effect of alcohol on the CNS

alcohol

12

during starvation, brain adapts to use of ketone bodies derived from fat breakdown for energy, by inducing what?

by inducing a ketone body transporter across the BBB

13

ketones can be elevated by ___________ diet, used by some to treat seizures as they are believed to reduce neuronal excitability esp. in children

ketogenic diet (high in fat)

14

_______ proteins are resistant to digestion

most

15

how many essential amino acids are there?

9

16

energy used in protein synthesis accounts for ________ % of basal metabolic rate

12%

17

there is no functional store of ________

amino acids

18

the carbon skeleton of amino acids is converted to what two things with release of ATP (esp. in liver)

CO2 and water

19

term that provides an indication of how BG levels change after ingesting different carbs

glycemic index

20

name foods with high glycemic index

bread
rice
bananas
glucose
sucrose
soft drinks
raisins
honey

21

low glycemic index

apples
grapefruit
peaches
plums
beans
milk
yogurt
ice cream
fructose
tomato soup

22

____________ in large intestine is acted upon by bacterial flora, process of fermentation releases short-chain fatty acids

soluble fiber

23

proprionic and acetic acids are metabolized in the ________

liver

24

_____________ is used by gut colonocytes as an essential source of energy

butyric acid

25

multiplication of the bacteria flora has what effect on stools?

increases bulk and water content

26

________ reaches the colon unchanged and is not fermented by bacteria

insoluble fiber

27

what is the function of insoluble fiber?

to hold water

28

insoluble fiber together with _____________, the intra-colonic mass is greater and leads to increased peristaltic action which increases speed of movement of the colon contents

large bacterial mass

29

monosaccharides do not require __________ prior to absorption in the small intestine

digestion

30

name the 3 sugar alcohols that are used as sweetening agents in the food industry

sorbitol
mannitol
xylitol

31

what are the 2 valuable properties of sugar alcohols?

1. absorbed from the gut and metabolized to glucose more slowly, delaying the rise in BG

2. not fermented by mouth bacteria, fewer dental carries; seen in chewing gum

32

term for maladaptive pattern of use w/i a 12 month period manifested by one or more of the following: failure to fulfill major role obligations, use in physically dangerous situations, related legal probs, continued use despite persistent social or personal probs

substance abuse disorder

33

substance dependence disorder dx: maladaptive use leading to 3 or more of the following in a 12 month period (name them)

tolerance
withdrawal
larger amount of substance
unable to cut down
time spent to obtain substance
impaired performance
use despite physical and psychological problems

34

definition: implies permanent structural changes have taken place in the brain

substance addiction

35

dependence implies ___________ changes

reversible

36

if drug is addictive then it must have the ability to facilitate the ___________ system

dopaminergic-glutamatergic system

37

the change with synaptic plasticity results in increased sensitivity to environmental or ___________ triggers which can overwhelm the pt's motivated conscious desire to abstain

endogenous

38

what do you ask about first when taking a substance abuse history?

ask about socially acceptable first such as caffeine and nicotine

39

what does RAPS4 stand for?

Remorse
Amnesia
Performance Interference
Starter/eye opener
(more sensitive than CAGE)

40

with early intervention technique what is the classic intervention?

to make pt overcome past denial in order for pt to realize their problem

41

what is an example of biochemical feedback intervention?

malmo GGT study

42

the Malmo GGT study screened what pts for increased GGT levels?

moderate drinkers

43

Monthly GGT test for these pts with moderate drinking instead of heavy drinking- successful in ___% fewer days sick or absent from work, ____% fewer hospitalization days and ___% lower mortality in the 4 yr follow up periods

80%
60%
50%

44

what % of people in the US experience an episode of depression in their lifetime

10%

45

what is the ratio of women to men with depression?

2:1 due to increased incidence during the reproductive yrs

46

once established, depression recurs in men and women with _________ frequency

equal

47

regarding depression: after 1st episode __% of pts experience recurrence within 2 yrs unless on maintenance treatment; after 3rd episode, the rate of recurrence is ____%

50%

90%

48

bipolar pts experience more freq. episodes of _____ than mania or hypomania

depression

49

After any bipolar episode, the risk of recurrence increases from ____% at 1 yr to 90% at 3 yrs if mood stabilizing treatment is not continued

50%

50

bipolar disorder may be revealed when ______ or ____ is started for major depression, during first few wks of treatment

SSRI or SNRI

51

what are the 3 major categories of symptoms for PTSD?

intrusion
arousal
avoidance

52

most typical PTSD for females?

rape or family violence

53

most typical PTSD etiology for males?

PTSD after combat or accidence

54

what is the status of urinary cortisol and NE in pts with PTSD?

low urinary cortisol and high NE

55

are men or women more likely to develop PTSD?

women

56

symptoms for somatoform disorders must begin prior to age _____

30 yrs

57

what is a screening test for somatoform disorders? also: often have comorbidities and family hx

PHQ13

58

what is the ratio of men to women with body dysmorphic disorder?

EQUAL