Flashcards in PCM Deck (58):
name the deficiency: required for synthesis of opsin and conversion of retinol to retinal; deficiency will compromise visual cycle; may resuult in corneal edema conjunctivitis and xerosis
name the def: contributes to age-related macular degeneration, leading cause of registered blndess in western pop. _______ lower in smokers. ___________ can't be synth. by body, dietary intake in green leafy vegetables, orange/yellow fruits and veggies and in breast milk
name the 3 vitamins required for glutathione
niacin, riboflavin and vitamin C
cataracts are more common in what populations?
low income groups
those exposed to direct sunlight
________ important for the integrity of conjunctiva; deficiency results in blockage of sebaceous glands of the eyelids
_______ deficiency causes deficiency of the EOMS?
__________ deficiency causes demyelination of optic nerve (seen in heavy smokers and drinkers, and in tapeworm)
vitamin B12 deficiency
disease that has cholesterol deposits within the cornea
most rapid period of brain growth occurs from mid gestation at 20 wks to __________ months after birth
the transporter that moves glucose across the BBB is not responsive to what?
__________ ingestion reduces glucose transport into the brain, which contributes to the depressive effect of alcohol on the CNS
during starvation, brain adapts to use of ketone bodies derived from fat breakdown for energy, by inducing what?
by inducing a ketone body transporter across the BBB
ketones can be elevated by ___________ diet, used by some to treat seizures as they are believed to reduce neuronal excitability esp. in children
ketogenic diet (high in fat)
_______ proteins are resistant to digestion
how many essential amino acids are there?
energy used in protein synthesis accounts for ________ % of basal metabolic rate
there is no functional store of ________
the carbon skeleton of amino acids is converted to what two things with release of ATP (esp. in liver)
CO2 and water
term that provides an indication of how BG levels change after ingesting different carbs
name foods with high glycemic index
low glycemic index
____________ in large intestine is acted upon by bacterial flora, process of fermentation releases short-chain fatty acids
proprionic and acetic acids are metabolized in the ________
_____________ is used by gut colonocytes as an essential source of energy
multiplication of the bacteria flora has what effect on stools?
increases bulk and water content
________ reaches the colon unchanged and is not fermented by bacteria
what is the function of insoluble fiber?
to hold water
insoluble fiber together with _____________, the intra-colonic mass is greater and leads to increased peristaltic action which increases speed of movement of the colon contents
large bacterial mass
monosaccharides do not require __________ prior to absorption in the small intestine
name the 3 sugar alcohols that are used as sweetening agents in the food industry
what are the 2 valuable properties of sugar alcohols?
1. absorbed from the gut and metabolized to glucose more slowly, delaying the rise in BG
2. not fermented by mouth bacteria, fewer dental carries; seen in chewing gum
term for maladaptive pattern of use w/i a 12 month period manifested by one or more of the following: failure to fulfill major role obligations, use in physically dangerous situations, related legal probs, continued use despite persistent social or personal probs
substance abuse disorder
substance dependence disorder dx: maladaptive use leading to 3 or more of the following in a 12 month period (name them)
larger amount of substance
unable to cut down
time spent to obtain substance
use despite physical and psychological problems
definition: implies permanent structural changes have taken place in the brain
dependence implies ___________ changes
if drug is addictive then it must have the ability to facilitate the ___________ system
the change with synaptic plasticity results in increased sensitivity to environmental or ___________ triggers which can overwhelm the pt's motivated conscious desire to abstain
what do you ask about first when taking a substance abuse history?
ask about socially acceptable first such as caffeine and nicotine
what does RAPS4 stand for?
(more sensitive than CAGE)
with early intervention technique what is the classic intervention?
to make pt overcome past denial in order for pt to realize their problem
what is an example of biochemical feedback intervention?
malmo GGT study
the Malmo GGT study screened what pts for increased GGT levels?
Monthly GGT test for these pts with moderate drinking instead of heavy drinking- successful in ___% fewer days sick or absent from work, ____% fewer hospitalization days and ___% lower mortality in the 4 yr follow up periods
what % of people in the US experience an episode of depression in their lifetime
what is the ratio of women to men with depression?
2:1 due to increased incidence during the reproductive yrs
once established, depression recurs in men and women with _________ frequency
regarding depression: after 1st episode __% of pts experience recurrence within 2 yrs unless on maintenance treatment; after 3rd episode, the rate of recurrence is ____%
bipolar pts experience more freq. episodes of _____ than mania or hypomania
After any bipolar episode, the risk of recurrence increases from ____% at 1 yr to 90% at 3 yrs if mood stabilizing treatment is not continued
bipolar disorder may be revealed when ______ or ____ is started for major depression, during first few wks of treatment
SSRI or SNRI
what are the 3 major categories of symptoms for PTSD?
most typical PTSD for females?
rape or family violence
most typical PTSD etiology for males?
PTSD after combat or accidence
what is the status of urinary cortisol and NE in pts with PTSD?
low urinary cortisol and high NE
are men or women more likely to develop PTSD?
symptoms for somatoform disorders must begin prior to age _____
what is a screening test for somatoform disorders? also: often have comorbidities and family hx