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1

Major Types of Project Delivery

1. Design-Bid-Build

2. Construction Management Multi-Prime (CM MP)

3. Construction Management-at-Risk (CM@Risk)

4. Design-Build (DB)

2

What is Agency CM?

Add-on service that an Owner can use to add expertise to any type of project delivery

3

What is Lean (Alliance Contracting)?

Overlay to any project delivery method that attempts to reduce the redundant efforts (waste) associated with the current delivery process

4

Fundamental Decisions an Owner must make

1. What type of project delivery method to use

2. What will be the procurement method

3. What wil lthe contract be like

5

Generally, 3 parties involved in the process of delivering the project

1. Owner

2. Designer

3. Builder

6

Design-Bid-Build Characteristics

Two Contracts (Architect & Contractor)

Best Understood

Linear Sequence of Work (Longest Delivery)

7

Pros / Cons of

Design-Bid-Build

Pros:

  • Retain Control of Design
  • Procurement laws are well defined
  • Low first cost (Bidding)

Cons:

  • Final cost changes: Owner responsible
  • Most litigious
  • Contracto has no input on project

8

Characteristics of

Construction Management Multi-Prime

(CM-MP)

Many Contracts (Architect, Contractor, Subcontractors)

Linear Design

CM is selected on Qualifications

9

Pros / Cons of

Construction Management Multi-Prime

(CM-MP)

Pros:

  • Retain control of design
  • Contractor involved early
  • Combine fast track and lowest bids

Cons:

  • Owner responsible for changes, overlaps, and gaps in scope
  • Lack of subcontractor involvement
  • Exposure to CM's lack of proper oversight

10

Characteristics of

Construction Management at Risk

(CM@Risk)

2 Contracts (Archtec & Contractor)

CM selected on qualifications and fees

Some constrction risks transferred to GC

Like CM MP for selection and mangement of work

Open book on costs (subs & supplier payments) and procurement process

Flexibility to price project

Subs are re-assigned to the CM

Bonding can be for entire scope of work (GCs and Subs)

Risks can push CM not to act as the agend of the Owner

11

Pros / Cons of

Construction Mangement at Risk

CM@Risk

Pros:

  • Retain control of design
  • Conctractor involved early
  • Flexibility to price the project

Cons:

  • Owner responsible for changes
  • Owner's qualification-based selection of the CM
  • Architect may not take input from CM during design

12

Characteristics of

Design-Build

Single point of contact / responsibility

Often is the fastest delivery

Most cost effective

Need a well-defined scope

Need for timely decisions

Must effectively administer design-build process

13

Pros of

Design-Build

  • Owner retains control of design
  • Construction input occurs during the design process
  • Overlaps & gaps in scope are identified during pre-construction
  • Cost benefit of procuring the construction directly from the trades
  • No mark-ups on subcontracts or on changes
  • Improved schedule due to early resolution of the design & construction issues
  • Packaging of work can allow for construction to start early
  • Tighter Control to adhere to scop budget
  • CM as Owner's rep manages the construction in Owner's best interest

14

Cons of

Design-Build

  • Owner responsible for changes, overlaps, and gaps in scope
  • Exposure to CM's lack of proper oversight
  • Subcontractors may be brough into project late in the process
  • Need up-front program & performance criteria
  • Owner needs to manage decisions on quality
  • Owner is pushed for early decisions

15

What are the Core Values of

NCARB?

  • Leadership
  • Accountability
  • Trasnparency
  • Integrity
  • Collaboration
  • Excellence

16

What are the NCARB Rules of Conduct?

  1. Competence
  2. Conflict of Interest
  3. Full Disclosure
  4. Compliance with Laws
  5. Professional Conduct

17

What are the 5 Types of Business Organizations for architectural firms?

  1. Sole Prioprietorship
  2. General or Limited Partnership
  3. Corporation
  4. Limited Liability Company or Limited Liability Partnership
  5. Joint Venture

18

Pros / Cons of

Sole Proprietorship

Pros:

  • Easy to setup
  • Utilizes skills of more individuals
  • Tax advantages go to the partners

Cons:

  • Partners are responsible & liable for actions of the others
  • Partners are personally liable for company's debt & losses
  • If sued, all partners are liable with personal income/property
  • Disagreements can lead to dissolved partnerships

19

Pros / Cons of

Corporations

Pros:

  • Financially & legally independent from shareholders
  • Continuity that is independent of changes to shareholders/directors/principals

Cons:

  • Requires Formal Articles of Incorporation
  • Taxed separately (twice)
    • Corporation on profits
    • Shareholders on dividends
  • High cost of start up / maintenance

20

Characteristics of

Corporations

Association of individuals that exist as legal entity apart from its members. Consist of:

  • Stockholders (own portion of corporation--shares). They elect Directors.
  • Directors have fiduciary responsibility to act in company's best interest of stockholders. Broad policy decisions. They elect officers.
  • Officers carry out day-to-day management of the corporation.

21

Characteristics of

Partnerships

General Partnership

  • Two or more people
  • Share management, profits, and risks
  • Income shared and reported on personal tax forms

Limited Partnership

  • One partner, one ore more limited partners
  • Limited partners are investors who profit with no say in magnement
  • Liable only to extent of their investment

22

Characteristics of

Sole Proprietorship

  • Simplest business type
  • Owned by an individual
  • Can do business under owner's name or a company name
  • Only requires
    • Name
    • Whatever electronic comm systems necessary
    • business liceneses required by local jurisidictions

23

Define:

Standard of Care

Level of skill and diligence that a resonably prudent architect would exercise in the same community, in the same time frame, and given the same or similar facts and circumstances.

24

Define:

Departmental Organization

Staff organized indo departments, specializing in different functions.

Every dept works on every project as needed

Project moves from one dept to another from start to finish

25

Pros / Cons of

Studio Organization

Pros:

  • Close & immediate communication among members
  • Group problem solving & idea sharing
  • Project manager has daily contact with team and client

Cons:

  • Expertise may be missing and will need to be brought in
  • Disengaged project manager may weaken guidance
  • Personality conflicts may arise and interfere with production / cause conflict

26

Pros / Cons of

Departmental Organization

Pros:

  • Efficient
  • Able to standardize & fine-tune processes
  • Makes full use of specialists
  • Creates economies of scale

Cons:

  • Inflexible
  • Resistant to innovaton & change
  • Communication between depts can be a challenge
  • Difficult to gain experience and share knowledge outside expertise

27

Define Studio Organization

(aka Vertical or Tall Organization)

Organized around groups of employees called studios.

Each studio is responsible for completing an entire project from planning to production to construction administration

They can stay as teams or reform as new projects dictate

28

Define Outsourcing

Contracting with another company to do some of the work needed for a project

29

Define: Support Staff

Employees other than the professional staff and senior management

 

Examples:

Administration Assistants, Receptionists, Bookkeppers, Marketing People, Model Builders, Technology Asisstants

30

Canons of AIA Code of Ethics

  1. General Obiligations
  2. Obligations to the Public
  3. Obligations to the Client
  4. Obligation to the Profession
  5. Obligations to Colleagues
  6. Obligations to the Environment