PD - Nature of Impairment and Clinical Implications of Research Findings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PD - Nature of Impairment and Clinical Implications of Research Findings Deck (11):

What is PD and what does it affect?

PD = neurodegenerative disease affecting many parts of the CNS including the basal ganglia; pt's lose the ability to perform automated tasks without directing attention to them


Primary motor impairments in PD?

T = Tremor
R = rigidity
A = akinesia (brady/hypo) - worse with movement+dual tasking
P = postural instability


Morris et al (1994) - examined bradykinesia and hypokinesia during gait in people with PD. What did that find?

Normal walking at preferred speed: reduced velocity (bradykinesia) and reduced stride length (hypokinesia); cadence is increased but the OVERALL effect is still reduced velocity

Fast walking: PD mainly increases cadence not stride length in order to walk faster

Walking with auditory cue (metronome): they can match cadence to auditory cue but this alone doesn't do anything for stride length or velocity


Morris et al (1994) - TAKE HOME MESSAGE

Speed is reduced mainly d/t a reduction in STRIDE LENGTH and compensated for by an increase in CADENCE

So you see short steps, slow walk, increased cadence


Akinesia (freezing) - when do you get it?

- initiating standing, walking, rolling over
- turning
- dual tasks
- end of medication

MORE LIKELY in narrow doorways or in busy environments


Define freezing of gait

- feeling that feet are glued to the floor when walking through narrow spaces, making a turn, initiating walking, crowded spaces
- can be accompanied by trembling of the legs + small shuffling steps


Secondary motor impairments in PD?

Dystonia (thought to be related to L-dopa use) - painful and abnormal mm contractions resulting in abnormal postures
MM weakness + reduced power


Name some activities that are limited by impairments of PD

Rolling over
Reaching, holding, and manipulating objects


What does the UPDRS test and what are teh components?

Test impairments:
1. Action tremor
2. Finger taps
3. Hand grips
4. Hand pron/sup
5. Heel taps
6. Postural instability test
7. Rising fromchair
8. Rigidity of neck
9. Compensatory stepping correction (trust test)


What are some tools to assess for ACTIVITY LIMITATIONS in PD (and MS and MND)

Berg Balance
Spiral test
Step test
9 hole peg test


List 5 strategies to promote safety during unsupervised exercise in PD patients

1. Exercise with another person nearby
2. Exercise when ON meds
3. Minimize distractions (although this might be introduced later on)
4. Ensure stable/firm surface nearby for support
5. Stop exercising if symptoms arise and seek help/advice