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Flashcards in PDA Anesthetics nad introductions Deck (104):
1

What are the unique side effects of propofol?

pain on injection, and often given with lidocaine
can cause initial excitation on induction

2

What do you do for patients who are at risk for hypotension for anesthesia?

utilize Etomidate

3

What are the unique side effects of Etomidate?

high incidence of pain on ijection, myoclonus
significant nausea
suppresion of adrenocorticol response to stress; can cause increased death

4

What type of anesthesia does ketamine produce??

Dissociative anesthesia
-profound analgesia
-eyes open but pts unresponsive
-amnesia
-bronchodilator

5

What are some of the unique side effects of ketamine?

emergence delilrium
nystagmus, salvitation, spontaneous movement
lacrimation
increased ICP
hypertension

6

What is ketamine reseved for?

ppatients with bronchospasm
children undergoing short painful procedures

7

What is midazolam used for?

short acting benzo; GABAa activator
used alone for concious sedation

8

What are midazolam side effects?

respiratory depression; arrests
caution in pts with neuromusc diseases
hypotension

9

What are some commonalities of inhalation general anesthetics?

very low therapeutic indices; LD50/ED50 very low;
vaporized or gas; uniqeu and important pharmokinetics

10

What are the role of partition coefficients used for?

determine relative amount of anasthetics in different compartments

11

How are anesthesia eliminated?

gas moves from blood into inspired air; fat and high solubility into fat changes recovery

12

Why isn't Isoflurane used to induce anesthesia?

Coughing, and respiratory irritant

13

What is the risk of toxicity with MAO inhibitors related to food intake?

Tyramine build up due to MAO inhibition leads to hypertensive crisis due to Tyramine causing NE release

14

What are the therapeutic uses of MAO inhibitors

second line depressive disorder treatment
Narcolepsy

15

What are the central criteria of Schizophrenia?

two symptoms at least one must be postiive

16

What are the positive symtpoms of schizophrenia?

Delusions, hallucination, disorganized speech

17

What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

groslly disorganized or catatonic behavior, blunted affect, lack of spontaneity, poor abstract htinking, poverty of thought, social withdrawal

18

What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia?

schiz results from hyperactivity of dopaminergic neruons or their receptors; based on the fact that all effective antipsychotics interact with dopamine systems

19

What antipsychotic has cardiac effects?

Thioridazine

20

What was the first drug of anti-psychotics to go onto the market?

Clozapine

21

What are the negative side effects of clozapine?

lowers seizure thresholds and can cause agranuloctyosis

22

What atypical antipsychotic has a shorter half life and is sued for augmentation of depression?

Quetiapine

23

What are the uses of the antipsychotic drugs?

actue psychotic episodes
chronic schizophrenia
manic episodes, bipolar
schizoaffective disorder
augmentation in depression
Tourette's, antiemisis

24

What antipsychotic is not sued to treat emesis?

thioridazine

25

What was the first drug used to treat bipolar?

lithium blocks manic behavior; has no behavior change in normals

26

What is the mechanism of aciton of bipolar disorder?

Inhibitis pohosphatase conversion of IP2 to IP1

27

Pharmokinetics of liuthium?

complete abs in 6 to 8 hous serum half life 18--24 hours, unboundt o plasma protein, CSF concentration half of plasma concentration renal eliminated

28

What is the difference between half life of lithium in elderly vs young?

Lithium half life is much longer in elderly 30-36 h;ours compared to 18-24 hours

29

What can raise Lithium levels?

increase Na excretion such as by loop diuretic
also ACE inhibitors lead to increase Lithium levels

30

Side effects?

fatigue, muscle weakness, tremor, Gi symptoms, slurred speech. Coma and dangerous side effects at 2-3x tx levels

31

Alternates to lithium?

Carbamazepine and Valproic acid, Olanzapine and fluoxetine combined, initial control is with haloperidol in ER of manic episodes

32

What is mechanism of action of Carbamazepine?

blocks sodium channels

33

What is mechanism of Valproic acid?

blcoks repetitive neuronal firing
reduce T-type C++ current
increase GABA concentration

34

Characteristics of Generalized anxiety disorder?

persistent anxiety for at least 1 month duration, absence of specific symptoms of other disorders

35

What are teh treatments for anxiety and insomnia?

Benzodiazepines
SSRIs
BUSPIRONE
Antihistamines 1st gen H1 blocker
Alcohol, cannabis, opiatees
Barbiturates

36

Where is GABA localized?

Substantia Nigra, globus pallidus, hippocampus, limbic structures, hypothalamus, spinal cord

37

What does bendoiazepines do?

enhance the effects of GABA on Cl- channels

38

What are the agonists of benzodiazepine receptor?

Diazepam, clinically useful

39

What is the antagonisnt of benzodiazepine?

Flumazenil

40

Why do we use benzodiazepines as opposed to barbituates?

benzodiazepines are much safer

41

How lipid soluble is diazepam?

very fast onset, because high lipid solubility and has rapideredistribution

42

HOw lipid soluble is lorazepam?

less lipophilic than diazepam. Absorption and onset of action are slower

43

What are the CNS effects of benzodiazepines?

decreased anxiety, sedation, hypnosis, muscle relaxation, anterograde amnesia, anticonvulsant action, minimal cv and respiratory actions

44

What benzo is used for alcohol withdrawal?

chlordiazepoxide

45

What benzo is used to treat actue manic episodes?

clonazepam

46

What benzo is used as a muscle relaxant?

diazepam

47

what is the only benzo used for both sleep and anxiety?

lorazapam

48

What are the adverse effects of benzos?

daytime sedation, ataxia, rebound insomnia, tolerancee and dependence, occasional idiosyncratic excitement and stimulation, increased death rate associated with use

49

Zolpidem is waht?

anti-insomnia, binds to BDZ receptor on GABA receptor, non-benzo chemically
preserves REM and non REM sleep

50

What is the mechanism of action of Barbiturates?

Act at GABA Cl ion channel complex; enhance action of GABA and increase inhibition

51

Baclofen is a muscle relaxant that acts through what mechanism?

alpha GABA receptor agonist

52

What are the four general componenets of general anesthetic state?

amnesia
unconsciousness (not always necessary)
analgesia (inability to interpret, repond to and remember pain(
Noxious painful stimuli don't evoke movment or ANS

53

What is the dose of a gas directly related to?

It's concentration at the alveolus

54

What is MAC?

minimal alveolar concentration that prevents movemnt in 50% of patients

55

How is potency for IV anesthetics determined?

free plasma concentration that produces loss of response to surgical incision in 50% of pts

56

What is the GABAa receptor?

GABA-regulated chloride channel; most anesthetics increase GABAa opening, results in hyperpolarization

57

Inhibition of NMDA receptors is used in what drug group?

some general anesthetics; results in hyperpolarization and reduced sodium and calcium influx

58

What are the stages of general anesthesia?

premedicaiton
induction
-usually by IV only by gas in emergent situations
Maintenaince
-gaseous usually have short half life and needed to be admin continuously

59

What is the mechanism of Sodium thiopental?

activate GABAa receptors

60

What is the role and class of sodium thiopental?

used to induce anesthesia; occurs 10-30 seconds after IV injection; barbiturates

61

Why are intra-arterial injections contraindicated in barbituate use?

results in inflammation and necrosis

62

What are the side effects of barbituates?

CNS depression, CV, respiratory depression

63

What is the most commonly used barbituate for anesthesia?

sodium thiopental

64

What is the most commonly used parenteral general anesthetic in US?

propofol

65

What is the mechanism of action of propofol?

GABAa mechanism

66

What is propofol used for during anesthesia?

both to induce and maintain anesthesia

67

What is the advantages of propofol?

antiemetic, quick onset of action, half life in body is 3.5 hours resulting in much less of a hangover

68

What are the unique side effects of propofol?

pain on injection, and often given with lidocaine, excitation on inducion

69

Why is propofol dangerous to administer?

more severe BP reduction than with thiopental
vasodilation and depression of myocardial cotnractility
blunts baroreflexes
respiratory more depression than thiopental

70

What drug is used in patients at risk for hypotension?

Etmoidate

71

What are the unique side effects of Etomidate?

high incidence of pain on injection and myoclonus
problems with nausea and vomiting
suppression of hte adrenocortical response; can result in higher mortality

72

What are the side effects of Etomidate non-unique?

CNS is the same as thiopental
CV is far less than thiopental
Respiratory less than thiopental

73

What type of anesthetic is ketamine?

dissociative anesthestic
-profound analgesia
-eyes open but unresponsive to commands
-amnesia
-bronchodilator no respiratory suppresion

74

What is the mechanism of action of ketamine?

NMDA receptor antagonist

75

What are the side effects of ketamine?

increased ICP
Emergence delirium
nystagmus, salivation, lacrimation, increase muscle tone
spontaneous movment
hypertension

76

What indicates ketamine use for patients?

children undergoing short, painful procedures
reserved for pateients iwth bronchospasms--bronchodilator

77

What are the properties of midazolam?

short acting benzo, GABAa activator
used alone for conscoius sedation or as an induction adgent
adjunct during local anesthesia
pre-op med for anxiety

78

What are the side effects of midazolam?

respiratory depression and arrest
caution in pts with parkinsons, bipolar and neuromusc disease
CV effects similar to thiopental

79

What is does blood:gas Ppartion coefficient indicate

if low need more inspired air, quick induction, recovery quick
high means less in inspired air, both induction and recovery are slow

80

What are important when induction occurs with gaseous anesthetic?

pulmonary ventilation (more important for gases with moderate to high blood gas PC)
anesthetic conc in inspired air
pulmonary blood flow
arteriovenous concentration gradient

81

What are the clinical uses of isoflurane?

most commonly used inhalational anesthetic in US and worldwide

82

What are the side effects of isoflurane?

airway irritant, coughing, decrease tidal volume, increase respiratory rate
anesthetic depress respiration
myocardial depression, arrythmias and ICP increase

83

What is the pharmacokinetics of desflurane?

very volatile at room temperatures, very low solubility in blood, rapid inductiona dn recovery
excreted unchanged in expired air

84

What are hte clinical uses of desflurane?

outpatient surgeries/maintenaince
not used to induce bc of resp irrtation
skeletal muscle relaxation

85

What are the side effects of desflurane

similar to isoflurane but a worse respiratory irritant

86

What are hte pharmokinetics of sevoflurane?

very low blood:gas PC
about 5% metabolized to fluoride ion
nephrotoxic effects

87

What is the clinical use of sevoflurane?

very popular for inpatient and outpatient to induce and maintain; not a respiratory irritant

88

What are the clinical use of Nitrous oxide?

weak anesthetic, cannot get enough into air to prodduce MAC
Good for sedation and alagesia, used together to reduce dose of other anaesthetics

89

What are the side effects of nitrous oxide?

contraindicated in pneumothorax
negative ionotrope but also sympathomimetic
respiratory effects are minimal
abuse liability

90

What are the mechanisms of local anesthetics?

bind reversibly to a site within the pore of voltage gated Na+ channels; blocking sodium entry when channel is openned
Bc of the role of these channels in AP initiation and generation
cause sensory loss and motor paralysis

91

In what order to local anesthetics have for sodium channesl?

lowest to highest affinity?
unactivated->activated->inactive
resting nerves less sensitive to block
nerves with positive membrane potential more sensitive to block

92

What are the sensitivity of neuron types to local anesthetics?

autonomic fibers, small non-myelinated C fibers, and small Adelta fibers, are blocked before larger myelinated Adelta, Abeta and Aalpha fibers

93

What is the order to the block of local anesthetics?

in order pain, cold, warmth, touch, deep pressure, motor and recover in reverse

94

What are the toxicity and side effects of local anesthetics?

interfere with function of all organs or transmission of impulses (CNS, ganglia, NMJ, Muscle)
systemic toxic reactions
intraneuronal injection can produce irreversible damage
S-enantiomer is less toxic than R-enantiomer in local anesthetics

95

What is the CNS toxicity of local anesthetics?

stim is seen first, depressiona t higher doses, death associated with sever toxicity usually caused by respiratory depression

96

What is the CV toxicity of local anesthetics?

general depression of CV system, down myocardial contractility
develop hypotension and arrythmias

97

How are local anesthetics metabolized?

ester local anesthetics inactivated by plasma esterases
amide local anesthetics metabolized in liver

98

What is the role of cocaine clinically?

local anesthetic, but also blocks uptake of norepi, potent vasoconstrictor, used for topical anesthesia of upper resp tract

99

What is tetracaine?

long acting ester local anesthetic
more potent and longer duration of action than procaine
used in spinal anesthesia and in topical and opthalmic preparations

100

What is benzocaine?

anesthetic with low water solubility, therefore too slowly abosrbed when applied topically
applied to wounds and ulcerated surfaces for pain relief

101

What is lidocaine?

intermediated duration of action, produce faster more intesnse and long lasting compared to prococaine
wide range of clinical uses

102

What is role of Bupivicaine?

long acting amide local anesthetic
capable of producing prologned anesthesia
provide more sensory than motor block
more cardiotoxic than equi-effective dose of lidocaine

103

What is ropivacaine?

long acting amide, anesthetic actions similar to bupivicaine with less toxicity
used for epidural and regional anesthesia
even more motor-sparing

104

Difference between amide and ester local anesthetics?

amides metabolized by liver with no allergic reaction
esters metabolizedd by plasma cholinesterases with rare allergic reactiosn