Flashcards in PDS5 Deck (23):
define opportunity cost
cost of any choice in terms of the benefits forgone by not choosing something else
what is economic evaluation ?
The comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences
Maximising benefits in the face of scarce resources
Clinical improvements such as extending life or improving quality of life
Concerned with fairness of how health care resources are allocated
Study of the distribution and determinants of an illness in the population and its application to the prevention and control of the illness
Number of new cases in a given population in a given time period (usually per year or per quarter)
All cases in a given population in a given time period (usually per year)
Number of cases in a given population at a point in time (point prevalence)
define exposed population
The exposed population is all those who have been exposed to the organism
define susceptible population
The susceptible population are all those with no immunity (vaccination or acquired)
what are the Principles of Health Protection
what is primary prevention and examples?
primary prevention- stopping it happening in the first place
Sexual health advice
what is secondary prevention and examples/
secondary prevention– stopping more cases occurring
Treatment of case
Contact tracing and advice about reducing risks
what does a lion mark on an egg mean?
free of salmonella
how is risk of communicability assessed?
- Severity of the disease
- Transmission of the disease:
- Susceptibility of the population
what is an 'outbreak'?
An outbreak exists when there are more cases of a particular disease than expected in a given area, or among a specific group of people, over a particular period of time
a single incidence might be managed as if it is an outbreak
what is the threshold for NICE approving a treatment?
£20,000 / QALY
how is a QALY calculated?
number of years of life x the quality of life (a number between 0 and 1)
what is cost - effectivness analysis? pros and cons?
economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes of different options. does not assign monetary value to the measure of effect
is relatively easy to undertake and the benefits are measured as a single unidimensional outcome;
other potentially important outcomes may be ignored. This unidimensionality may result in drawing erroneous conclusions from CEA.
what is cost - utility analysis? pros and cons?
a form of financial analysis used to guide decisions. measursed in QALYs
CUA measures more aspects of health and well-being than a single natural unit.
more complex than CEA.
different methods for calculating QALYs can give different results
what is cost - benefit analysis? pros and cons?
benefits of a situation are summed and the cost of it is subtracted from that.
the only form of evaluation that addresses whether the benefits of an intervention exceed its costs.
hard to assign monetary value to health
alzheimers is preventable T or F?
30% is preventable - no right answer classic PDS