PDS5 Flashcards Preview

4TH YEAR > PDS5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PDS5 Deck (23):
1

define opportunity cost

cost of any choice in terms of the benefits forgone by not choosing something else

2

what is economic evaluation ?

The comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences

3

define efficenacy

Maximising benefits in the face of scarce resources

4

define effectivness

Clinical improvements such as extending life or improving quality of life

5

define equity

Concerned with fairness of how health care resources are allocated

6

define epidemiology

Study of the distribution and determinants of an illness in the population and its application to the prevention and control of the illness

7

define incidence

Number of new cases in a given population in a given time period (usually per year or per quarter)

8

define prevalence

All cases in a given population in a given time period (usually per year)
or
Number of cases in a given population at a point in time (point prevalence)

9

define exposed population

The exposed population is all those who have been exposed to the organism

10

define susceptible population

The susceptible population are all those with no immunity (vaccination or acquired)

11

what are the Principles of Health Protection

surveillance
control
communication
prevention

12

what is primary prevention and examples?

primary prevention- stopping it happening in the first place
eg:
Immunisation
Food hygiene
Water supply
Sexual health advice

13

what is secondary prevention and examples/

secondary prevention– stopping more cases occurring
eg:
Treatment of case
Contact tracing and advice about reducing risks
Needle exchanges

14

what does a lion mark on an egg mean?

free of salmonella

15

how is risk of communicability assessed?

- Severity of the disease
- Transmission of the disease:
Mode/route
Infective dose
Infective period
- Susceptibility of the population

16

what is an 'outbreak'?

An outbreak exists when there are more cases of a particular disease than expected in a given area, or among a specific group of people, over a particular period of time

a single incidence might be managed as if it is an outbreak

17

what is the threshold for NICE approving a treatment?

£20,000 / QALY

18

how is a QALY calculated?

number of years of life x the quality of life (a number between 0 and 1)

19

what is cost - effectivness analysis? pros and cons?

economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes of different options. does not assign monetary value to the measure of effect

is relatively easy to undertake and the benefits are measured as a single unidimensional outcome;

other potentially important outcomes may be ignored. This unidimensionality may result in drawing erroneous conclusions from CEA.

20

what is cost - utility analysis? pros and cons?

a form of financial analysis used to guide decisions. measursed in QALYs

CUA measures more aspects of health and well-being than a single natural unit.

more complex than CEA.
different methods for calculating QALYs can give different results

21

what is cost - benefit analysis? pros and cons?

benefits of a situation are summed and the cost of it is subtracted from that.

the only form of evaluation that addresses whether the benefits of an intervention exceed its costs.

hard to assign monetary value to health
very complex

22

alzheimers is preventable T or F?

30% is preventable - no right answer classic PDS

23

what are the 5 As of prevention medicine?

1.Ask
2.Assess
3.Advise/ Agree
4.Assist
5. Arrange