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Paramedic - NREMT-P > Pediatric Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Emergencies Deck (71)
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1

Birth to 2 months

Controls gaze
Turns head

2

2-6 months

Eye contact
Uses both hands
Rolls over
Sleep through night

3

6-12 months

Sits without support
Crawls
Puts things in mouth
Teething begins

4

Toddler

1 to 3 years
Use parent to do things to child

5

Toddler Development

-Crawls/walks
Sensory developments
-Runs climbs
Balance
-Fine motor Skills
Toiler training
Draw a circle

6

Preschool Age

3 to 5 years
Can understand directions
4 years old develops 20/20 vision and has normal running or walking

7

School Age

6-12 years
Can communicate well

8

Adolescence

13-17 years
Issues of independence and sexuality

9

Neck and Airway

Short necks
Airway smaller
Epiglottis is LONG and floppy
Keep nares clear <6 months old
Neck very soft and collapsible, don't hyperextended neck

10

Narrowest portion of child's airways is____

Occurs at cricoid cartilage rather than vocal cords in adults

11

Respiratory System

Metabolic oxygen demand of child is doubled to adult
Children inhale toxins faster than adults and become symptomatic sooner

12

Ventilating

Only enough air to see rise of the chest

13

Pediatric Resp Rates

Neonate-1month: 30-60
Infant: 25-50
Toddler: 20-30
Preschool: 20-25
School: 15-20
Adolescent: 12-20
Adult: 12-20

14

Pediatric Pulse Rates

Neonate-1month: 100-180
Infant: 100-160
Toddler: 90-150
Preschool: 80-140
School: 70-120
Adolescent: 60-100
Adult: 60-100

15

Cardiovascular System

Pulse can be 200 or more for compensation
Peds rely on heart rate for cardiac output rather than vasoconstriction

16

Blood Volume in Ped

Appx. 70ml/kg

17

Hypovolemia in Ped

May lose a lot of blood before hypotension show

18

Delayed Capillary Refill

Shunting of the vessels causing peripheral vasoconstriction

19

Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord not very well protected
Less subarachnoid space causing less cushion for the brain
Easier to damage head and spine

20

Suspect Shock in Ped

Tachycardia
Brady for hypoxia

21

Spinal column

Fulcrum of spine is closer to C1-C2 because head is heavier

22

Abdomen and Pelvis

Head 1st cause of injury, abdominal injuries second
Not as much protection with ribs and abdominal organs

23

Musculoskeletal

Fractures are easier due to lack of ossification centers

24

Chest and Lungs

Very thin chest wall
Ribs are more pliable and flexible
Easier to hear heart and lung sounds

25

Skin

Thinner more elastic skin
More BSA ratio
Temperature isn't regulated as well
Increased risk of hypothermia and severe burns

26

Metabolic

Not much glycogen stores in liver of pediatrics
Cover head to manage heat loss

27

Pediatric Assessment Triangle

Work of breathing
Circulation of skin
Appearance

28

TICLS

Most important feature of child's appearance
Tone: muscle tone, ridged or limp?
Interact: alert? How easily distracted? Grasp or reach?
Consolability: can be calmed by caregiver?
Look: fixed gaze or glass stare
Speech: strong cry? Age appropriate speech

29

Work of Breathing

Abnormal Airway Sounds: snoring, hoarse speech, strider, wheezing or grunting
Abnormal Positioning: sniffing positions, tripod, refusing to lie down
Retractions: superclavicular, intercostal, substernal retractions, head bobbing
Flaring: flaring of nares on inspiration

30

Grunting

Indicative of partially closed epiglottis and moderate to severe hypoxia
Seen with pnuemonia