Pediatric Nutrition Flashcards Preview

GI Exam 1 > Pediatric Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Nutrition Deck (48):
1

Neonates risk factors for nutritional deficiency

Low birth water: less than 2500 g
Birth weight less than 3% for age
Acute weight > 10%

2

Children risk factors for nutritional deficiency

Less than 10% wt/ht for age
>90% wt/ht for age
Increased metabolic requirements
Intolerance/inability for enteral feedings
Inadequate weight gain or significant weight loss

3

Subjective Assessments

Temperment
Infant "norms"
Feeding patterns
Medical history
Dietary habits/restrictions

4

Objective Assessments

Growth curves
Different norms in lab values - acute factors
Development
Laboratory

5

Infant growth - After birth

Lose up to 10% of birth weight but should regain that by 2 weeks

6

From birth to 1 year, normal infants =

trible their weight and increase their length by 50%

7

By 4 months,

birth weight is doubled

8

Failure to Thrive =

Less than 2-5% for age wt/ht
Fall over 2 major % lines

9

Pediatric BMI

Less than 5% underweight
5-85% Normal
85-95% Overweight
>95% Obese

10

Increased MF requirements:

Fever
Hyperventilation
Sweating
Hyperthyroidism
Diarrhea
Burns
Phototherapy

11

Decreased MF requirements:

Renal dysfunction
CHF

12

Carb Requirement for Peds

20-30 g/kg/day for adequate growth
60-70% of non-protein calories

13

Carbs calories

3.4-4 calories per gram dextrose

14

Lipid calories

9 calories/g

15

Lipids Requirement for Peds

30-40% of non-protein caolires

16

Advantages of breastmilk

Low is salt and potassium
Anti-infective properties
Longterm immunity
Cheap
Bonding
Weight loss
Reduce obesity, diabetes
Increase IQ???

17

Define colostrum

Milk produced first 3-5 days postpartum
Low in fat
High in protein

18

Define Transitional milk

Days 5-15

19

Define Mature Milk

>15 days postpartum
High in fat

20

Protein + Breast Milk

Whey: casein ration 80:20 colostrum and 60:40 mature

21

Whey is

soluble, non curdling
Remains a solution in stomach

22

Casein

Forms micelles
Insoluble --> curdles
More allergic

23

Fat + Breast Milk

Major source of energy
Primarily TG
Has lipase to aid in digestion

24

Carbs + Breast Milk

39% of calories
Lactose - major
Enhances absorption of Ca and Mg

25

If a baby can't tolerate formula but handled breast milk, what the reason?

Formula has protein in it and breast milk doesn't

26

Milk-Protein Based Formulas Indication and examples

Healthy term infants
20 cal/oz

27

Milk-Protein Based Formulas Protein

1.4-1.5 g protein/100 mL
Casein or whey

28

High casein content may

slow GI emptying GI distress or constipation

29

Milk-Protein Based Formulas Carbs

Lactose, corn syrup, cornstartch
Can be lactose-free

30

Milk-Protein Based Formulas Fat

More digestible forms (cows milk)
Others: palm olein, coconut, soybean

31

Milk-Protein Based Formulas Iron

7-10 mg/L of iron but if problems with constipation drop down to 1.5 mg/L

32

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) uses and minimum

Brain, eye and nervous system development
0.2%

33

Arachidonic acid (ARA) uses and minimum

Eicosanoid formulation for immunity, blood clotting, etc
0.2%

34

Prebiotics Supplementation?

Non-digestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon
- Resist host digestion and absorption in stomach --> large bowel unmodified
- Shows as oligosaccharides

35

Reason for prebiotic supplement

Breast milk contains 100 different oligosaccharide like molecules
- Bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli

36

Probiotic supplementation

Microbes that protect the host and prevent disease
Benefit on grwoth and reduced colic, diarrhea, and abx use
- bifidobacterium and lactobacillus

37

Soy protein indications

Cow's milk protein intolerance
Lactose intolerance
Vegetarians
Galactosemia

38

Soys are converted to:

estrogens so can this effect the baby, maybe?

39

Soy Protein Formulas Protein

Modified soy proteins

40

Soy Protein Formulas Carbs

Lactose free
Sugar free

41

Protein Hydrosylate Formula Indication

Milk protein intolerance
Soy protein intolerance
Failure to thrive or feeding problems
Malabsorption syndrome
BROKEN DOWN PROTEINS

42

Protein Hydrosylate Formula Protein

Milk protein hydrolyzed into low molecular weight peptides (improve absorption)

43

Amino Acid Formulas Indication

Intolerance to hydrolyzed infant formulas
- Most expensive
- Nasty

44

Amino Acid Formulas Proteins

Free amino acids

45

Premature Infant Formulas Indication

Premature infants under 2000 g
Infants with fluid restrictions

46

Pediatric Formulas Indications

Greater than 6-12 months
Tube fed

47

Infants will feed

EVERY 3 TO 4 HOURS (8 to 6 feedings)

48

30 mL = ___ oz

1