Pelvic Organs Flashcards Preview

HAE - Quiz 5 > Pelvic Organs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvic Organs Deck (66):
1

Os Coxa

- formed by the fusion of the ischium, ilium, and pubis

2

Acetabulum

- socket of the hip joined located at the fusion of the three pelvic bones

3

Four Pelvic Spines

ASIS - Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

AIIS - Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine

PSIS - Posterior Superior Iliac Spine

PIIS - Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine

4

Greater Sciatic Notch

- indent between PIIS and the iscial spine

5

Lesser Sciatic Notch

- indent between the ichial spine and the ischial tuberosity

6

Divisions of the Pelvic Cavity

False Pelvis - lower abdominal cavity (between the Iliac crests and the linea terminalis

True Pelvis - below the linea terminalis/pelvic inlet

 

7

Sections of the Linea Terminalis

Pubic Crest → Pectineal Line → Arcuate Line → Sacral Ala → Sacral Promentory

8

Pelvic Anatomical Position

- the ASIS and the antero-superior edge of the pubic symphysis are vertical

- true pelvis therefore inferior and posterior to false pelvis

9

Male vs. Female Bony Pelvis

Women - Gynecoid Pelvis

- round/oval pelvic inlet

- widely spaced ischial spines

- pubic arch >= 80 degrees

Male - Android Pelvis

- triangular/heart-shaped pelvic inlet

- narrowly spaced ischial spines

- pubic arch <=70 degrees

10

Bones of the Pelvic Wall

- sacrum, coccyx, and os coxa

11

Sacrospinous Ligament

- extends between the sacrum/coccyx and the ischial spine

12

Sacrotuberous Ligament

- extends between PSIS and the ischial tuberosity

13

Obturator Canal

- between the obturator membrane and the pubis (passageway between the pelvic cavity and the thigh)

14

Greater Sciatic Foramen

Formed by the:

- greater sciatic notch

- sacrospinous ligament

- sacrotuberous ligament

- ischial spine

**major passageway between the pelvic cavity and lower limb

15

Lesser Sciatic Foramen

Formed by:

- lesser sciatic notch

- ischial spine

- sacrospinous ligament

- sacrotuberous ligament

**passageway between the perineum and lower limb

 

16

Obturator Internus Muscle

- covers most of the anterolateral pelvic wall

17

Piriformis Muscle

- covers most of the posterolateral pelvic wall

18

Pelvic Outlet

- diamond-shaped inferior margin of the true pelvis

Boundaries:

- Pubic Symphisis (anterior)

- Ischiopubic Ramus (lateral)

- Ischial Tuberosity (lateral)

- Sacrotuberous ligament (posterior)

- Coccyx (posterior)

**closed inferiorly by the pelvic diaphragm

19

Rectum

- most posterior organ

- lacks taeniae coli, epiploic appendices, and haustra

- has transverse folds and the rectal ampulla that supports the fecal matter

20

Anorectal Junction

- pulled anteriorly (perineal flexure) by the action of the pelvic diaphragm

- causes anal canal to move posteriorly through the pelvic floor

21

Ureter Travel

Anterior to the common iliac veins

Posterior the the gonadal veins

- travel obliquely through the wall of the bladder - allows valvular action (prevents vesicoureteral reflux)

22

Bladder

- most anterior organ in the pelvis

- empty - has a pyramid shape

Apex (anterior) - medial umbilical ligament extends from apex to umbilicus

Base (posterior)- trigone on the inside

Neck (inferior)- rests on prostate/pelvic diaphragm

23

Detrusor Muscle

- muscle forming the wall of the bladder

24

Trigone

- smooth triangular area bw the openings of the ureters (superiorly) and the urethra (inferiorly)

25

Uvula

Male - located at the inferior angle of the trigone

- a small protrusion of the prostate into the bladder wall

- enlargement may result from prostratic hyperplasia

 

26

Male Urethra

- ~20cm

- divided into four regions

Preprostatic

Prostatic

Membranous

Spongy

27

Female Urethra

- ~3.5cm (short)

- anterior to the vagina

28

Male Internal Genital Organs

Testes

Epididymis

Ductus Deferens

Ejaculatory Duct

Urethra

 

29

Male Genital Accessory Glands

Prostate

Two Seminal Vesicles

Two Bulcourethral Glands

30

Ductus Deferens Path

Ascends from the Scrotum in the Spermatic Cord → Passes through Deep Inguinal Ring → Crosses External Iliac Artery/Vein → Enters Pelvic Cavity → Crosses Posteror to the Bladder → Crosses anterior to the Ureter

31

Ampulla of the Ductus Deferens

- enlargement of the ductus deferens posterior to the bladder → joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculator duct → enters prostate → empties into the prostratic urethra

32

Seminal Vesicle

- bliateral accessory gland that lies between the bladder at the rectum

- lateral to the ductus deferens at the base of the bladder

33

Prostate Location

- unpaired accessory gland

- surrounds the urethra

- inferior to the bladder

- posterior to the pubic symphysis and anterior to rectum

34

Inside Prostate

- posterior wall of urethra is raised → forms urethral crest and seminal colliculus

- ducts of prostate empty into the urethral sinus on either side of the crest

35

Femal Internal Genital Organs

Vagina

Uterus

Uterine Tubes

Ovaries

Pair of greater vestibular glands

36

Uterus

- located between bladder and rectum

- divided into:

Fundus - rounded superior end above uterine tube entrance

Body - between the fundus and cervix

Cervix - fibrous, tubular lower portion that protrudes into the uppermost vagina

37

Nulliparous

- female who has not given birth

1/2 corpus and 1/2 cervix

38

Parous

- female who has given birth

2/3 corpus

1/3 cervix

39

Anteverted

- normal position of the uterus

- tipped anteriorly relative to the axis of the vagina

40

Anteflexed

- normal position of the uterus

- bent anteriorly relative to the axis of the cervix so it rests on the bladder

41

Retroverted

- uterus that is tilted posteriorly relative to the axis of the vagina

42

Retroflexed

- uterus whose fundus is pointing posteriorly so that angle relative to cervix is increased

43

Round Ligament

- passes through the deep inguinal ring

- travels in the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora

- continous with the proper ligament of the ovary where they fuse on the lateral wall of the uterus

44

Uterine Tube

Fimbriae - projections off of the infandibulum that catch the egg

Infandibulum - expanded lateral section of the uterine tube that is open to the pelvic cavity

Amulla - lateral 2/3 of uterine tube

Isthmus - medial 1/3 of uterine tube

45

Ovaries

- sites of egg production

- mature eggs ovulated into the peritoneal vacity and directed to the infandibulum by the fimbriae

46

Suspensory Ligament of the Ovary

- vessels that supply/drain the ovary

- a fold of peritoneum where the vessels travel through from the retroperitoneum

47

Vagina

- distensible fibromuscular tube extending from the cervix to the vestibule of the vagina

- usually collapsed except on superior end where cervix holds walls apart

48

Vaginal Fornix

- recess formed bw margin of the cervix and the vaginal wall

- posterior - deepest part of the recess and is closely related to the rectouterine pouch

49

Palpable Structures in Male Rectal Exam

Prostate

Seminal Vesicles

Ischial Spine

Sacrum 

Coccyx

50

Palpable Structures in Female Vaginal Exam

Wall of Vagina

Cervix

Posterior Wall of Bladder

Anterior Wall of Rectum

Ischial Spine

Sacrum

(bladder, ovaries, uterus with second hand)

51

Pelvic Fascia

- transversalis fascia that continues inferiorly into the pelvic cavity

Visceral - if in contact with pelvic viscera

Parietal - if in contact with pelvic wall/muscles

52

Endopelvic Fascia

- extraperitoneal fascia (bw peritoneum and transversalis fascia) that extends into the pelvis

- contains fat, vessels, and nerves 

53

Peritoneum in the Abdomen

- reflects off of the pelvic organs (does not form a pelvic layer)

54

Pubocervical/Pubovesical Ligaments

- fascial condensation in female

Supports:

- urethra, bladder, and cervix (important for urinary continence)

55

Transverse Cervical (Cardinal) Ligament

- anchors the cervix laterally to the pelvis

- uterine vessels travel through

56

Uterosacral Ligament

- anchors the cervix and uterus to the sacrum

57

58

Puboprostatic Ligament

- endopelvic fascia condensation

- anchors prostate to public bone

59

Sacrogenital Ligament

- endopelvic fascial condensation in male

- anchors prostate to sacrum

60

Exception to "Subperitoneal"

- most organs in the pelvis are below the peritoneum

Exception = uterus - has a mesentery and is intraperitoneal

61

Rectovesical Pouch

- recess formed by the reflection of the peritoneum over the bladder and the rectum in the male

62

Pararectal Fossae

- spaces along the lateral aspects of the rectum (male and female)

63

Vesicouterine Pouch

- shallow recess between the bladder and the uterus

64

Rectouterine Pouch (of Douglas)

- deep recess between the uterus and the rectum (adjacent to the posterior fornnix of the vagina)

- when supine, lowest portion of the abdominopelvic cavity - site where infection and fluids often collect

65

Broad Ligament of the Uterus

- double layer of peritoneum

- extends from the sides of the uterus to the lateral walls/floor of the pelvis

Three Parts:

Mesometrium (body of uterus to body walls)

Mesosalpinx (surrounds uterine tubes)

Mesovarium (forms shelf-like fold supporting ovaries

66

Proper Ligament of the Ovary

- attaches the inferior pole of the ovary to the uterus