com - ido
returned, given back
The Present Perfect Tense
he hablado, I have spoken
has hablado, you have spoken
ha hablado, he/she has spoken
hemos hablado, we have spoken
habéis hablado, you have spoken
han hablado, they have spoken
el presente perfecto
Pretérito perfecto compuesto
Pretérito perfecto compuesto
Upspecified Time "Before Now"
The present perfect may be used to indicate an action or state as having occurred —and having been completed— prior to the present time
yo digo que ell lo ha hecho ~ I said that she had done it
Ya hemos visto la película ~ We have already seen the film
Pretérito perfecto compuesto - still in progress
The present perfect is NOT used to indicate an action still in progress. To express an ongoing action which began in the past, the present tense is used:
Hace cuatro años que vivo aquí ~ I have lived (have been living) here for four years
Pretérito perfecto compuesto - Just done
The present perfect is NOT used to express the idea "to have just(done something)". Spanish typically employ the present of acabare de plus the infinitive.
Acabo de oír la noticia. ~ I just heard the news [item].
Acabamos de poner el televisor ~ We have just turned on the TV
A past-time situation is normally indicated by the preterit and imperfect, for example by dijo .
The past perfect tense (e.g., había viajado) views an action or state as having occurred —and been completed— at a time prior to another past action, state or time (e.g., dijo).
Juan dijo que había viajado a México ~John said that he had traveled to Mexico.
pluscauamperfecto - forms
había hablado I had spoken
habías hablado you had spoken
había hablado he/she had spoken
habíamos hablado we had spoken
habíais hablado you had spoken
habían hablado they had spoken
pluscauamperfecto - still in progress
The past perfect is NOT used to indicate an action which began in previous past time and is still in progress in (simple) past time; the imperfect tense is used for this purpose:
Hacía cuatro años que vivíamos aquí. ~ We had lived (had been living) here for four years.
Trabajaban en el proyecto desde hacía seis horas ~ They had been working on the project for six hours.
Cuánto tiempo llevabas mirando la tele? ~ How long had you been watching TV?
pluscaumperfecto - just done
To express the idea “to had just (done something)”, Spanish usually employs the imperfect of acabar de plus the infinitive, for example:
Acababa de oír la noticia ~ I had just heard the news [item]
Acabábamos de poner el televisor. We had just turned on the TV [set].
This tense views an action or state as having occurred —and been completed— at some time in the future. It is used in almost exactly the same way as we use it in English, for example:
Juan habrá salido para las ocho. Juan will have left by eight o'clock.
Todos habrán terminado la composición para mañana. Everyone will have finished their compositions by tomorrow.
habré hablado I will have spoken
habrás hablado you will have spoken
habrá hablado he/she will have spoken
habremos hablado we will have spoken
habréis hablado you will have spoken
habrán hablado they will have spoken
futuro perfecto - present
The future tense can be used to indicate conjecture in present time (that is, to replace the present tense and an equivalent of “probably”):
Similarly, the future perfect tense can be used to indicate conjecture or probability in past time; specifically, it may be used to replace the preterit or present perfect tense and an equivalent of “probably”:
Ahora serán las tres. Right now it is probably 3:00.
¿Ese ruido? Habrá sido el gato. That noise? It must have been the cat.
Marta ya habrá salido. Martha (has) probably already left.