Flashcards in Performance and Limitations Deck (36):
Define: Angle of Incidence
The angle formed by the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord line of the wing.
The angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage.
Define: Relative Wind
The direction of the airflow with respect to the wing.
Define: Bernoulli's Principle
The pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases.
Ex: Lower pressure on top of the wing where the speed is increased.
Define: Torque Effect
The propeller is moving in one direction so an equal force is trying to rotate the airplane in the opposite direction.
Define: Centrifugal Force
The "equal and opposite reaction" of the airplane to change in direction.
Define: Load Factor
The actual load supported by the wings divided by the airplane's total weight.
Also expressed as ratio of a given load to the pull of gravity.
Ex: 3g's = weight of the airplane is 1 and the load factor is 3x that load.
Why is the Load Factor important?
It is dangerous to overload the aircraft structure.
An increased load factor increases stalling speed.
What is the Maximum Safe Load Factor? (Limit LF)
+3.8 to -1.52
Define: Maneuvering Speed
The maximum speed at which abrupt control movement can be applied.
What are the effects on maneuvering speed with an increase or decrease in weight?
Va speed increases with an increase in weight and decreases with a decrease in weight.
What causes a stall?
Excessive Angle of Attack
What causes a spin?
Exceeding the Critical AOA while uncoordinated.
When are spins most likely to occur?
Engine failure on takeoff/climbout
Cross controlled base to final
Engine failure on approach to land
Go-around with full nose-up trim
Go-around with improper flap retraction
Define: Empty Weight
All fixed items in and on the aircraft
Define: Gross Weight
The maximum allowable weight of both the airframe and its contents
Define: Useful Load
The weight of:
-Pilot and passengers
What effects does a forward CG have?
Higher stalling speed
Slower cruise speed
Greater elevator pressure required
What effects does an aft CG have?
Lower stall speed
Higher cruise speed
What factors affect the performance of an aircraft during takeoff and landing?
Slope of the runway
Weight of the aircraft
What factors affect density altitude?
How to recover from a spin?
P - power idle
A - ailerons neutral
R - rudder opposite direction
E - elevator pitch down (release back pressure)
Procedure for engine failure?
C - Carb heat ON
A - Airspeed to best glide speed
B - Best place to land
C - Checklist
What causes adverse yaw?
Left aileron down
-AOA increases, increasing lift and drag
Right aileron up
-AOA decreases, decreasing lift and drag
Prop moves to the lift because of the faster right wing, creating an undesired veering (adverse yaw)
Define: Ground Effect
Reduction of induced drag near the surface. Earth's surface alters the airflow pattern around the aircraft. Improved aircraft performance*
What performance characteristics will be adversely affected when an aircraft has been overloaded?
Higher takeoff speed
Longer takeoff run
Reduced rate and angle of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Reduced cruising speed
Higher stalling speed
Higher landing speed
Longer landing roll
What effect does an increase in density altitude have on takeoff and landing performance?
An increase in density altitude results in:
-increased takeoff distance
-reduced rate of climb
-increased true airspeed on approach/landing
-increased landing roll distance
Define: Density Altitude
Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperatures
How does air density affect aircraft performance?
Has a direct effect on:
-lift produced by the wings
-power output of the engine
Density altitude will increase when ...?
High air temperature
(opposite for decrease in density altitude)
Define: Pressure Altitude
The altitude indicated when the altimeter is set to 29.92
What is Pressure Altitude used to compute?
How many usable gallons of fuel can you carry?
What is the octane rating of fuel for your aircraft?
What is the maximum oil temperature and pressure?
Temp: 245 degrees F
Pressure: 25 PSI
What are the nosewheel turning limitations for your aircraft?