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Flashcards in Performance and Limitations Deck (36):
1

Define: Angle of Incidence

The angle formed by the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord line of the wing.
The angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage.

2

Define: Relative Wind

The direction of the airflow with respect to the wing.

3

Define: Bernoulli's Principle

The pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases.
Ex: Lower pressure on top of the wing where the speed is increased.

4

Define: Torque Effect

The propeller is moving in one direction so an equal force is trying to rotate the airplane in the opposite direction.

5

Define: Centrifugal Force

The "equal and opposite reaction" of the airplane to change in direction.

6

Define: Load Factor

The actual load supported by the wings divided by the airplane's total weight.
Also expressed as ratio of a given load to the pull of gravity.
Ex: 3g's = weight of the airplane is 1 and the load factor is 3x that load.

7

Why is the Load Factor important?

It is dangerous to overload the aircraft structure.
An increased load factor increases stalling speed.

8

What is the Maximum Safe Load Factor? (Limit LF)

+3.8 to -1.52

9

Define: Maneuvering Speed

The maximum speed at which abrupt control movement can be applied.

10

What are the effects on maneuvering speed with an increase or decrease in weight?

Va speed increases with an increase in weight and decreases with a decrease in weight.

11

What causes a stall?

Excessive Angle of Attack

12

What causes a spin?

Exceeding the Critical AOA while uncoordinated.

13

When are spins most likely to occur?

Engine failure on takeoff/climbout
Cross controlled base to final
Engine failure on approach to land
Go-around with full nose-up trim
Go-around with improper flap retraction

14

Define: Empty Weight

All fixed items in and on the aircraft
Also includes:
-unusable fuel/oil
-hydraulic fluid

15

Define: Gross Weight

The maximum allowable weight of both the airframe and its contents

16

Define: Useful Load

The weight of:
-Pilot and passengers
-Baggage
-Usable fuel
-Drainable oil

17

What effects does a forward CG have?

Higher stalling speed
Slower cruise speed
More stable
Greater elevator pressure required

18

What effects does an aft CG have?

Lower stall speed
Higher cruise speed
Less stable

19

What factors affect the performance of an aircraft during takeoff and landing?

Air density
Surface wind
Surface
Slope of the runway
Weight of the aircraft

20

What factors affect density altitude?

Altitude
Temperature
Humidity

21

How to recover from a spin?

P - power idle
A - ailerons neutral
R - rudder opposite direction
E - elevator pitch down (release back pressure)

22

Procedure for engine failure?

C - Carb heat ON
A - Airspeed to best glide speed
B - Best place to land
C - Checklist

23

What causes adverse yaw?

Right Turn
Left aileron down
-AOA increases, increasing lift and drag
Right aileron up
-AOA decreases, decreasing lift and drag
Prop moves to the lift because of the faster right wing, creating an undesired veering (adverse yaw)

24

Define: Ground Effect

Reduction of induced drag near the surface. Earth's surface alters the airflow pattern around the aircraft. Improved aircraft performance*

25

What performance characteristics will be adversely affected when an aircraft has been overloaded?

Higher takeoff speed
Longer takeoff run
Reduced rate and angle of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Shorter range
Reduced cruising speed
Higher stalling speed
Higher landing speed
Longer landing roll

26

What effect does an increase in density altitude have on takeoff and landing performance?

An increase in density altitude results in:
-increased takeoff distance
-reduced rate of climb
-increased true airspeed on approach/landing
-increased landing roll distance

27

Define: Density Altitude

Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperatures

28

How does air density affect aircraft performance?

Has a direct effect on:
-lift produced by the wings
-power output of the engine
-propeller efficiency
-drag forces

29

Density altitude will increase when ...?

High air temperature
High altitude
High humidity
(opposite for decrease in density altitude)

30

Define: Pressure Altitude

The altitude indicated when the altimeter is set to 29.92

31

What is Pressure Altitude used to compute?

Density altitude
True altitude
True airspeed

32

How many usable gallons of fuel can you carry?

40 gallons

33

What is the octane rating of fuel for your aircraft?

100LL

34

What is the maximum oil temperature and pressure?

Temp: 245 degrees F
Pressure: 25 PSI

35

What are the nosewheel turning limitations for your aircraft?

30 degrees

36

What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind component for your aircraft?

15 knots