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MS4 - CVS > Pericardial Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pericardial Disease Deck (30)
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1

Actue pericarditis definition

Inflammation of pericardium

2

General causes of acute pericarditis

Idiopathic

Infection

Dressler's syndrome

Drugs

Other

3

Infective causes of acute pericarditis

Viral

Bacterial

Fungi

4

Viral causes of acute pericarditis

Coxsackie virus

EBV

VZV

5

Bacterial causes of acute pericarditis

Pneumonia

Rheumatic fever

TB

Staphs, Streps

6

Dressler's syndrome definition

Form of pericarditits

2 to 10 wks post MI / myocardial injury

Auto-antibodies form against heart muscle

7

Drug causes of acute pericarditis

Hydralazine

Penicillin

Isoniazid

8

Other random causes of acute pericarditis

Rheumatoid arthritis

SLE

Uraemia

9

Sx of acute pericarditis

Chest pain

Worse on inspiration and lying flat

Pericardial rub

Fever

10

Acute pericarditis Ix

ECG saddle ST elevation

Viral serology

Blood cultures

FBC, U+E, Cardiac enzymes

11

Mx of acute pericarditis

Analgesia

Treat cause

Consider steroids / immunosuppressants

12

Problem with steroids and acute pericarditis

Steroids may increase risk of recurrence

13

Pericardial effusion definition

Fluid in pericardial sac

14

Causes of pericardial effusion

Any cause of pericarditis

15

Sx of pericardial effusion

SOB

Raised JVP

Ewart's sign

16

Ewart's sign

Bronchial breathing at left lower base

17

Ix for pericardial effusion

CXR enlarged heart

18

Mx of pericardial effusion

Treat the cause

Pericardiocentesis if tamponade

19

Constrictive pericarditis definition

Rigid pericardium

20

Causes of constrictive pericarditis

Idiopathic

Post acute pericarditis

21

Sx of constrictive pericarditis

Right heart failre

Kussmaul's sign

Quiet heart sounds

22

Kussmaul's sign

Paradoxical rise in JVP with inspiration

23

Signs of right heart failure

Raised JVP

Hepatospleomegaly

Ascites

Oedema

24

Ix for constrictive pericarditis

CXR: Small heart +/- pericardial calcification

25

Mx of constrictive pericarditis

Surgical excision

26

Cardiac tamponade definition

Pericardial effusion which increases intrapericardial pressure

Poor ventricle filling and CO

27

Causes of cardiac tamponade

Acute pericarditis

Aortic dissection

Trauma

28

Sx of cardiac tamponade

Beck's triad

Kussmaul's sign

Tachycardia

29

Beck's triad

Raised JVP

Hypotension

Muffled heart sounds

30

Mx of cardiac tamponade

Call senior/specialist

Pericardiocentesis