Flashcards in Peripheral Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology Deck (25):
In Alzheimer's disease, the __________ neurotransmitter system is down-regulated.
What neurotransmitter do the postganglionic parasympathetic neurons utilize?
Acetylcholine (the "cholinergic system")
What neurotransmitters do the postganglionic sympathetic neurons utilize?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine (the "adrenergic system")
Comparing the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which has longer preganglionic axons (usually)?
All preganglionic-ganglion synapses – regardless of sympathetic or parasympathetic – utilize ______________.
What is the one type of postganglionic sympathetic neuron that uses acetylcholine?
Those that synapse on sweat glands
How many postganglionic neurons do preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic innervate?
Parasympathetic: 1 - 2
Sympathetic: 20 - 50
Most organs have innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. What is one major exception?
The blood vessels – which have innervation only from the sympathetic nervous system
Basal tone is usually determined by ___________.
the parasympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic stimulation causes the pupils to _________.
contract (called miosis)
List four cholinergic agonists.
Organophosphate nerve gases
What are the three kinds of cholinergic antagonists?
Which system is more diffuse, the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic nervous system?
Which autonomic receptor is responsible for increasing total peripheral resistance?
The alpha-1 sympathetic receptor (found on splanchnic vasculature, cutaneous membranes)
What receptor mediates vasodilation in the skeletal-muscle vasculature?
The beta-2 sympathetic receptor
What postganglionic sympathetic neurons use dopamine?
Those that synapse on the renal smooth muscle
What subtypes of acetylcholine receptors are found in the parasympathetic pathway?
Nicotinic on the ganglia and muscarinic on the organs
What type of receptor is found on the sympathetic receptors of the adrenal medulla?
How do the PANS and SANS affect the salivary glands?
Both induce salivation, but the composition varies
What type of adrenergic receptor mediates constriction of the pupil?
Which type of autonomic input causes the eyes to focus on near things?
Doxazocin is a ____________ blocker.
What kind of adrenergic receptor mediates release of renin?
The urethral sphincters contract by which receptor?