What does the arterial system do?
carries oxygenated blood to the capillaries of the body organs
What are the different layers of an artery? Which one provides the strength?
tunica intima (endothelium, CT, basement membrane) tunica media (smooth muscle) tunica adventitia (elastic and collagenous fibers)
Media provides the strength
How do the arteries work?
Where is BP the greatest?
What happens in smaller arterioles and capillaries?
elastic fibers allow expansion during systolic phase (cxn)
recoil and drive blood through during diastolic
- BP is greatest in muscular small arteries
- BP decreases and blood flow slows to allow gas and nutrient exchange
What does the venous system do?
returns deoxygenated blood from tissue back to the heart (& moves waste products)
What are the different layers of a vein?
3 tunics, but less distinct and cannot contract
valves are formed by the inner layer of the vessel wall
How do veins work?
Veins formed by the inner layer of the vessel wall ensure one-way blood flow
Blood moves in veins via skeletal muscle pump and breathing (contraction of diaphragm insreases pressure in the abdomen and pressure differences force blood –> thoracic cavity –> heart)
What does the lymphatic system do?
transports interstitial fluid back to blood
transports absorbed fat from small intestine
has lymphocytes that provide immunological defense
What are the different layers of lymph pathways?
3 layers similar to veins, with close-ended tubes
valves formed by inner layer to prevent backflow
How is lymph moved throughout the body?
peristaltic motion and valvular closure
What are the 4 main categories of peripheral vascular disease?
- Arterial Occlusive
- Vasomotor Disorder / Vasospastic Disease
What are some types of arterial occlusive PVD?
What is a clot that commonly has a cardiac origin secondary to stasis of flow, and can migrate to peripheral arterial vessels and block it?
Which clot is less common and usually formed in conjunction with an atherosclerotic lesion… platelets gather behind lesion and form it… severity depends on size?
What are the symptoms of Thrombus/Emboli?
Pain, Pallor, Paralysis, Parasthesia, and Pulselessness
What is the hardening of arterial walls?
What is a form of arteriosclerosis that often involves plaque deposits on the endothelial lining?
What is a form of atherosclerosis that is manifested peripherally, usually in the lower extremities?
What is a specific arterial disease with tissue ischemia in young men who smoke?
thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease)
What will patients complain of subjectively with arterial occlusive disease?
cramping w/ walking
rest pain relieved by dependency
wounds w/o a history of trauma
What will patients display objectively with arterial occlusive disease?
trophic changes (loss of hair, abnormal cells, dry/cool skin) decreased pulses
What are some types of inflammatory disease?
What is inflammation of the vessel wall resulting from immune complex deposition or cell-mediated immune reactions directed against the vessel wall
What is a febrile inflammatory disease in children?
What are some types of vasomotor/vasospastic conditions?
Primary and secondary Raynaud’s
What is temporary vasospasm in arterioles causing cyanosis, most often occurring in the fingers and caused by cold temperatures or strong emotions?
Primary Raynaud’s Disease
What is it called when vasospasm in arterioles causing cyanosis, most often occurring in the fingers and caused by cold temperatures or strong emotions occurs secondary to another disease like Buerger’s or connective tissue diseases?
Secondary Raynaud’s Disease
What are some types of venous disease?
deep vein thrombosis
chronic venous insufficiency
What are abnormally dilated veins resulting from intrinsic vessel wall weakness and chronic valvular insufficiency?
Where and in whom do varicose veins most frequently occur?
in lower extremity, women (3:1)
What is caused by a coagulation of blood collected in deep veins due to obstructed blood flow?
What is inflammation/thrombosis of a superficial vein called?
What is it called when damaged valves result in decreased venous return, reversed bloodflow that can cause venous hypertension?
Chronic venous insufficiency
What is the cause of the majority (70-80%) of LE ulcers?
chronic venous insufficiency
What do patients complain of subjectively with venous disease?
aching/heavy legs, sometimes relieved with elevation,, wounds with no history of trauma
What do patients present with objectively with venous disease?
swelling, skin changes (hemosiderin, fibrosis), pulses present, wounds with drainage
Where are arterial wounds often found?
anywhere distal to ankle, often foot/toes
Where are venous wounds often found?
most often on medial mallelous and lower leg
How do arterial wounds appear?
dry, pale, minimal drainage, blanched wound base, punched out borders
How do venous wounds appear?
lots of drainage, red granulation, hyperpigmentation, red wound base, irregular borders
Which type of wound is painful?
Which type of wound has pulses?
What is primary lymphedema caused by?
failure of complete formation of lymph vessels
What is secondary lymphedema caused by?
trauma, surgery, parasitic infection, radiation, etc.
What does a patient with lymphedema complain of subjectively?
feelings of fullness and heaviness, numbness/tingling
What does a patient with lymphedema present with objectively?
swelling not improved by elevation, pitting, dermal changes (cysts, hyperkeratosis), decreased ROM, lymph leakage
What is joint breakdown marked by hypermobility in the feet with sensory/motor/autonomic issues?
What is the ability to sense pressure at different locations in the foot with a 5.07 mm monofilament ( Semmes-Weinstein)
What are the 3 phases of wound healing?
- Inflammatory Phase
- Proliferative Phase
- Maturation Phase